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SonicOS 5.9 Admin Guide

Users

Managing Users and Authentication Settings

User Management Overview

This chapter describes the user management capabilities of your SonicWall security appliance for locally and remotely authenticated users. User Management Configuration shows an overview of user-management configuration tasks.

User Management Configuration

SonicWall security appliances provide a mechanism for user-level authentication that gives users access to the LAN from remote locations on the Internet as well as a means to enforce or bypass content filtering policies for LAN users attempting to access the Internet. You can also permit only authenticated users to access VPN tunnels and send data across the encrypted connection.

The SonicWall authenticates all users as soon as they attempt to access network resources in a different zone (such as WAN, VPN, WLAN), which causes the network traffic to pass through the SonicWall. Users who log into a computer on the LAN, but perform only local tasks are not authenticated by the SonicWall. User-level authentication can be performed using a local user database, LDAP, RADIUS, or a combination of a local database with either LDAP or RADIUS.

SonicOS also provides Single Sign-On (SSO) capability. SSO can be used in conjunction with LDAP. The local database on the SonicWall can support up to 1000 users. If you have more than 1000 users, you must use LDAP or RADIUS for authentication.

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Using Local Users and Groups for Authentication

The SonicWall security appliance provides a local database for storing user and group information. You can configure the SonicWall appliance to use this local database to authenticate users and control their access to the network. Using Local Users and Groups for Authentication shows how The SonicWall appliance uses the local database for authentication.

Using Local Users and Groups for Authentication

The local database is a good choice over LDAP or RADIUS for this purpose when the number of users accessing the network is relatively small. Creating entries for dozens of users and groups takes time, although once the entries are in place, they are not difficult to maintain. For networks with larger numbers of users, user authentication using LDAP or RADIUS servers can be more efficient.

To apply Content Filtering Service (CFS) policies to users, the users must be members of local groups and the CFS policies are then applied to the groups. To use CFS, you cannot use LDAP or RADIUS without combining that method with local authentication. When using the combined authentication method in order to use CFS policies, the local group names must be an exact match with the LDAP or RADIUS group names. When using the LDAP + Local Users authentication method, you can import the groups from the LDAP server into the local database on the SonicWall. This greatly simplifies the creation of matching groups, to which CFS policies can then be applied.

The SonicOS user interface provides a way to create local user and group accounts. You can add users and edit the configuration for any user:

Group membership - Users can belong to one or more local groups. By default, all users belong to the groups Everyone and Trusted Users. You can remove these group memberships for a user, and can add memberships in other groups.
VPN access - You can configure the networks that are accessible to a VPN client started by this user. When configuring VPN access settings, you can select from a list of networks. The networks are designated by their Address Group or Address Object names.
* 
NOTE: The VPN access configuration for users and groups affects the ability of remote clients using GVC, NetExtender, and SSL VPN Virtual Office bookmarks to access network resources. To allow GVC, NetExtender, or Virtual Office users to access a network resource, the network address objects or groups must be added to the “allow” list on the VPN Access tab.

You can also add or edit local groups. The configurable settings for groups include the following:

Group settings - For administrator groups, you can configure SonicOS to allow login to the management interface without activating the login status popup window.
Group members - Groups have members that can be local users or other local groups.
VPN access - VPN access for groups is configured in the same way as VPN access for users. You can configure the networks that are accessible to a VPN client started by a member of this group. When configuring VPN access settings, you can select from a list of networks. The networks are designated by their Address Group or Address Object names.
CFS policy - You can apply a content filtering (CFS) policy to group members. The CFS policy setting is only available if the SonicWall is currently licensed for Premium Content Filtering Service.

Using RADIUS for Authentication

Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is a protocol used by SonicWall security appliances to authenticate users who are attempting to access the network. See Using RADIUS for Authentication. The RADIUS server contains a database with user information, and checks a user’s credentials using authentication schemes such as Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), Challenge-handshake authentication protocol (CHAP), Microsoft CHAP (MSCHAP), or MSCHAPv2.

Using RADIUS for Authentication

While RADIUS is very different from LDAP, primarily providing secure authentication, it can also provide numerous attributes for each entry, including a number of different ones that can be used to pass back user group memberships. RADIUS can store information for thousands of users, and is a good choice for user authentication purposes when many users need access to the network.

Using LDAP/Active Directory/eDirectory Authentication

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) defines a directory services structure for storing and managing information about elements in your network, such as user accounts, user groups, hosts, and servers. See Using LDAP/Active Directory/eDirectory Authentication. Several different standards exist that use LDAP to manage user account, group, and permissions. Some are proprietary systems like Microsoft Active Directory which you can manage using LDAP. Some are open standards SAMBA, which are implementations of the LDAP standards. Some are proprietary systems like Novell eDirectory which provide an LDAP API for managing the user repository information.

Using LDAP/Active Directory/eDirectory Authentication

In addition to RADIUS and the local user database, SonicOS supports LDAP for user authentication, with support for numerous schemas including Microsoft Active Directory (AD), Novell eDirectory directory services, and a fully configurable user-defined option that should allow it to interact with any schema.

Microsoft Active Directory also works with SonicWall Single Sign-On and the SonicWall SSO Agent. For more information, see Single Sign-On Overview.

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LDAP Directory Services Supported in SonicOS

To integrate with the most common directory services used in company networks, SonicOS supports integration with the following LDAP schemas:

 
Microsoft Active Directory
Samba SMB
RFC2798 InetOrgPerson
Novell eDirectory
RFC2307 Network Information Service
User-defined schemas

SonicOS provides support for directory servers running the following protocols:

 
LDAPv2 (RFC3494)
LDAPv3 (RFC2251-2256, RFC3377)
LDAP Referrals (RFC2251)
LDAPv3 over TLS (RFC2830)

 

LDAPv3 with STARTTLS (RFC2830)

LDAP Terms

 

Schema

The schema is the set of rules or the structure that defines the types of data that can be stored in a directory, and how that data can be stored. Data is stored in the form of entries.

Active Directory (AD)

The Microsoft directory service, commonly used with Windows-based networking. Microsoft Active Directory is compatible with LDAP.

eDirectory

The Novell directory service, used for Novell NetWare-based networking. Novell eDirectory has an LDAP gateway that can be used for management.

Entry

The data that is stored in the LDAP directory. Entries are stored in attribute/value (or name/value) pairs, where the attributes are defined by object classes. A sample entry would be cn=john where cn (common name) is the attribute, and john is the value.

Object class

Object classes define the type of entries that an LDAP directory may contain. A sample object class, as used by AD, would be user or group.

Object

In LDAP terminology, the entries in a directory are referred to as objects. For the purposes of the SonicOS implementation of the LDAP client, the critical objects are User and Group objects. Different implementations of LDAP can refer to these object classes in different fashions; for example, Active Directory refers to the user object as user and the group object as group, while RFC2798 refers to the user object as inetOrgPerson and the group object as groupOfNames.

Attribute

A data item stored in an object in an LDAP directory. The object can have required attributes or allowed attributes. For example, the dc attribute is a required attribute of the dcObject (domain component) object.

dn

A distinguished name, which is a globally unique name for a user or other object. It is made up of a number of components, usually starting with a common name (cn) component and ending with a domain specified as two or more domain components (dc). For example, cn=john,cn=users,dc=domain,dc=com.

cn

The common name attribute is a required component of many object classes throughout LDAP.

ou

The organizational unit attribute is a required component of most LDAP schema implementations.

dc

The domain component attribute is commonly found at the root of a distinguished name and is commonly a required attribute.

TLS

Transport Layer Security is the IETF standardized version of SSL (Secure Sockets Layer). TLS 1.0 is the successor to SSL 3.0.

Further Information on LDAP Schemas

Microsoft Active Directory: Schema information is available at
RFC2798 InetOrgPerson: Schema definition and development information are available at http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2798
RFC2307 Network Information Service: Schema definition and development information are available at http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2307
Samba SMB: Development information is available at http://us5.samba.org/samba/
Novell eDirectory: LDAP integration information is available at http://www.novell.com/documentation/edir873/index.html?page=/documentation/edir873/edir873/data/h0000007.html
User-defined schemas: See the documentation for your LDAP installation. You can also see general information on LDAP at http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1777

One-Time Password

One-Time Password (OTP) is a two-factor authentication scheme that utilizes system-generated, random passwords in addition to standard user name and password credentials. When users submit the correct basic login credentials, the system generates a one-time password, which is sent to the user at a pre-defined email address. The user must retrieve the one-time password from their email, then enter it at the login screen.

Each one-time password is single-use. Whenever a user successfully enters a valid user name and password, any existing one-time password for that account is deleted. Unused one-time passwords time out according to the time-out value set on the Users > Settings > User Session Settings interface. You can enable one-time password on a Local User or Local Group basis.To configure one-time password for Local Users, see Adding Local Users, or for Local Groups, see Creating a Local Group.

To use the one-time password, the appliance must have access to a correctly configured SMTP server. If OTP is enabled for administrators, without access to a correctly configured SMTP server, all users needing an OTP will not be able to log in. In this case, you would need to log in through the command line console to disable their own OTP, by entering the following commands in the serial console (assumes SonicWall NSA 3500 appliance):

NSA 3500> configure

(config[NSA 3500])> no web-management otp enable

Single Sign-On Overview

This section provides an introduction to the SonicWall SonicOS Single Sign-On feature.

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What Is Single Sign-On?

Single Sign-On (SSO) is a transparent user authentication mechanism that provides privileged access to multiple network resources with a single domain login to a workstation or through a Windows Terminal Services or Citrix server.

SonicWall security appliances provide SSO functionality using the SonicWall Single Sign-On Agent (SSO Agent) and SonicWall Terminal Services Agent (TSA) to identify user activity. The SonicWall Single Sign-On Agent (SSO Agent) identifies users based on workstation IP address. The SonicWall TSA identifies users through a combination of server IP address, user name, and domain.

SonicWall SSO is also available for Mac and Linux users when used with Samba. Additionally, browser NTLM authentication allows SonicWall SSO to authenticate users who send HTTP traffic, without involving the SonicWall SSO Agent or Samba.

SonicWall SSO is configured in the Users > Settings page of the SonicOS management interface. SSO is separate from the Authentication method for login settings, which can be used at the same time for authentication of VPN/L2TP client users or administrative users.

SonicWall SSO Agent and TSA use a protocol compatible with SonicWall ADConnector and NDConnector, and automatically determine when a user has logged out to prevent unauthorized access. Based on data from SonicWall SSO Agent or TSA, the SonicWall security appliance queries LDAP or the local database to determine group membership. Memberships are optionally checked by firewall policies to control who is given access, and can be used in selecting policies for Content Filtering and Application Control to control what they are allowed to access. User names learned via SSO are reported in logs of traffic and events from the users, and in App Flow Monitoring.

The configured inactivity timer applies with SSO, but the session limit does not, though users who are logged out are automatically and transparently logged back in when they send further traffic.

Users logged into a workstation or Terminal Services/Citrix server directly, but not logged into the domain are not authenticated unless they send HTTP traffic and browser NTML authentication is enabled (although they can optionally be authenticated for limited access). For users that are not authenticated by SonicWall SSO, a screen displays indicating that a manual login to the appliance is required for further authentication.

Users that are identified but lack the group memberships required by the configured policy rules are redirected to the Access Barred page.

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Benefits of SonicWall SSO

SonicWall SSO is a reliable and time-saving feature that utilizes a single login to provide access to multiple network resources based on administrator-configured group memberships and policy matching. SonicWall SSO is transparent to end users and requires minimal administrator configuration.

By automatically determining when users have logged in or out based on workstation IP address traffic, or, for Terminal Services or Citrix, traffic from a particular user at the server IP address, SonicWall SSO is secure and hands-free. SSO authentication is designed to operate with any external agent that can return the identity of a user at a workstation or Terminal Services/Citrix server IP address using a SonicWall ADConnector-compatible protocol.

SonicWall SSO works for any service on the SonicWall security appliances that uses user-level authentication, including Content Filtering Service (CFS), Firewall Access Rules, group membership and inheritance, and security services (Application Control, IPS, GAV, and SPY) inclusion/exclusion lists.

Other benefits of SonicWall SSO include:

Ease of use — Users only need to sign in once to gain automatic access to multiple resources.
Improved user experience — Windows domain credentials can be used to authenticate a user for any traffic type without logging into the appliance using a Web browser.
Transparency to users — Users are not required to re-enter user name and password for authentication.
Secure communication — Shared key encryption for data transmission protection.
SonicWall SSO Agent can be installed on any Windows server on the LAN, and TSA can be installed on any terminal server.
Multiple SSO Agents — Up to 8 agents are supported to provide capacity for large installations
Multiple TSAs — Multiple terminal services agents (one per terminal server) are supported. The number depends on the SonicWall network security appliance model and ranges from 4 to 256.
Login mechanism works with any protocol, not just HTTP.
Browser NTLM authentication — SonicWall SSO can authenticate users sending HTTP traffic without using the SSO Agent.
Mac and Linux support — With Samba 3.5 and higher, SonicWall SSO is supported for Mac and Linux users.
Per-zone enforcement — SonicWall SSO can be triggered for traffic from any zone even when not automatically initiated by firewall access rules or security services policies, providing user identification in event logging or App Flow Monitoring.
Platforms and Supported Standards

SonicWall SSO is available on SonicWall NSA Series appliances running SonicOS 5.0 or higher. The SonicWall SSO Agent is compatible with all versions of SonicOS that support SonicWall SSO. The SonicWall TSA is supported on SonicOS 5.6 and higher, running on SonicWall NSA Series and TZ 210 Series appliances.

The SonicWall SSO feature supports LDAP and local database protocols. SonicWall SSO supports SonicWall Directory Connector. SonicWall SSO can also interwork with ADConnector in an installation that includes a SonicWall CSM, but Directory Connector is recommended. For all features of SonicWall SSO to work properly, SonicOS 5.5 should be used with Directory Connector 3.1.7 or higher.

To use SonicWall SSO with Windows Terminal Services or Citrix, SonicOS 5.6 or higher is required, and SonicWall TSA must be installed on the server.

To use SonicWall SSO with browser NTLM authentication, SonicOS 5.8 or higher is required. The SonicWall SSO Agent is not required for browser NTLM authentication.

SonicWall SSO on SonicOS 5.5 and higher is compatible with SonicWall NDConnector for interoperability with Novell users. NDConnector is also available as part of Directory Connector.

Except when using only browser NTLM authentication, using SonicWall SSO requires that the SonicWall SSO Agent be installed on a server within your Windows domain that can reach clients and can be reached from the appliance, either directly or through a VPN path, and/or SonicWall TSA be installed on any terminal servers in the domain.

The SonicOS SSO feature is capable of working in Virtual Machine environments, but is not officially supported. This is due to the variety of potential resource consuming environments of VM deployments, making it not practicable to effectively test and verify all possible permutations.

The following requirements must be met in order to run the SSO Agent:

UDP port 2258 (by default) must be open; the firewall uses UDP port 2258 by default to communicate with SonicWall SSO Agent; if a custom port is configured instead of 2258, then this requirement applies to the custom port
Windows Server, with latest service pack
.NET Framework 2.0
Net API or WMI
* 
NOTE: Mac and Linux PCs do not support the Windows networking requests that are used by the SonicWall SSO Agent, and hence require Samba 3.5 or newer to work with SonicWall SSO. Without Samba, Mac and Linux users can still get access, but will need to log in to do so. They can be redirected to the login prompt if policy rules are set to require authentication. For more information, see Accommodating Mac and Linux Users.

The following requirements must be met in order to run the SonicWall TSA:

UDP port 2259 (by default) must be open on all terminal servers on which TSA is installed; the firewall uses UDP port 2259 by default to communicate with SonicWall TSA; if a custom port is configured instead of 2259, then this requirement applies to the custom port
Windows Server, with latest service pack
Windows Terminal Services or Citrix installed on the Windows Terminal Server system(s); Citrix XenApp 5.0 is supported

How Does Single Sign-On Work?

SonicWall SSO requires minimal administrator configuration and is transparent to the user.

SSO is triggered in the following situations:

If firewall access rules requiring user authentication apply to traffic that is not incoming from the WAN zone
When no user groups are specified in access rules, but any of the following conditions exist, SSO is triggered for all traffic on the zone, not just for traffic subject to these conditions:
CFS is enabled on the zone and multiple CFS policies are set
IPS is enabled on the zone and there are IPS policies that require authentication
Anti-Spyware is enabled on the zone and there are Anti-Spyware policies that require authentication
Application Control policies that require authentication apply to the source zone
Per-zone enforcement of SSO is set for the zone

The SSO user table is also used for user and group identification needed by security services, including Content Filtering, Intrusion Prevention, Anti-Spyware, and Application Control.

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SonicWall SSO Authentication Using the SSO Agent

For users on individual Windows workstations, the SSO Agent (on the SSO workstation) handles the authentication requests from the SonicWall network security appliance. There are six steps involved in SonicWall SSO authentication using the SSO Agent, as illustrated in SonicWall SSO Authentication Using the SSO Agent.

SonicWall SSO Authentication Using the SSO Agent

The SonicWall SSO authentication process is initiated when user traffic passes through a SonicWall security appliance, for example, when a user accesses the Internet. The sent packets are temporarily blocked and saved while the SonicWall security appliance sends a “User Name” request and workstation IP address to the authorization agent running the SSO Agent (the SSO workstation).

The authorization agent running the SSO Agent provides the SonicWall security appliance with the username currently logged into the workstation. A User IP Table entry is created for the logged in user, similarly to RADIUS and LDAP.

SonicWall SSO Authentication Using the Terminal Services Agent

For users logged in from a Terminal Services or Citrix server, the SonicWall TSA takes the place of the SSO Agent in the authentication process. The process is different in several ways:

The TSA runs on the same server that the user is logged into, and includes the user name and domain along with the server IP address in the initial notification to the SonicWall network security appliance.
Users are identified by a user number as well as the IP address (for non-Terminal Services users, there is only one user at any IP address and so no user number is used). A non-zero user number is displayed in the SonicOS management interface using the format, x.x.x.x user n, where x.x.x.x is the server IP address and n is the user number.
The TSA sends a close notification to the firewall when the user logs out, so no polling occurs.

Once a user has been identified, the SonicWall security appliance queries LDAP or a local database (based on administrator configuration) to find user group memberships, match the memberships against policy, and grant or restrict access to the user accordingly. Upon successful completion of the login sequence, the saved packets are sent on. If packets are received from the same source address before the sequence is completed, only the most recent packet will be saved.

User names are returned from the authorization agent running the SSO Agent in the format <domain>/<user‑name>. For locally configured user groups, the user name can be configured to be the full name returned from the authorization agent running the SSO Agent (configuring the names in the SonicWall security appliance local user database to match) or a simple user name with the domain component stripped off (default).

For the LDAP protocol, the <domain>/<user-name> format is converted to an LDAP distinguished name by creating an LDAP search for an object of class domain with a dc (domain component) attribute that matches the domain name. If one is found, then its distinguished name is used as the directory sub-tree to search for the user’s object. For example, if the user name is returned as SV/bob, then a search for an object with objectClass=domain and dc=SV is performed. If that returns an object with distinguished name dc=sv,dc=us,dc=SonicWall,dc=com, then a search under that directory sub-tree is created for (in the Active Directory case) an object with objectClass=user and sAMAccountName=bob. If no domain object is found, then the search for the user object is made from the top of the directory tree.

Once a domain object has been found, the information is saved to avoid searching for the same object. If an attempt to locate a user in a saved domain fails, the saved domain information is deleted and another search for the domain object is made.

User logout is handled slightly differently by SonicWall SSO using the SSO Agent as compared to SSO with the TSA. The SonicWall security appliance polls the authorization agent running the SSO Agent at a configurable rate to determine when a user has logged out. Upon user logout, the authentication agent running the SSO Agent sends a User Logged Out response to the SonicWall security appliance, confirming that the user has been logged out and terminating the SSO session. Rather than being polled by the SonicWall network security appliance, the TSA itself monitors the Terminal Services/Citrix server for logout events and notifies the SonicWall network security appliance as they occur, terminating the SSO session. For both agents, configurable inactivity timers can be set, and for the SSO Agent, the user name request polling rate can be configured (set a short poll time for quick detection of logouts, or a longer polling time for less overhead on the system).

SonicWall SSO Authentication Using Browser NTLM Authentication

For users who are browsing using Mozilla-based browsers (including Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome and Safari) the SonicWall appliance supports identifying them via NTLM (NT LAN Manager) authentication. NTLM is part of a browser authentication suite known as “Integrated Windows Security” and is supported by all Mozilla-based browsers. It allows a direct authentication request from the appliance to the browser without involving the SonicWall SSO agent. NTLM is often used when a domain controller is not available, such as when the user is remotely authenticating over the Web.

NTLM Authentication is currently available for HTTP; it is not available for use with HTTPS traffic.

Browser NTLM authentication can be tried before or after the SonicWall SSO agent attempts to acquire the user information. For example, if the SonicWall SSO agent is tried first and fails to identify the user, then, if the traffic is HTTP, NTLM is tried.

To use this method with Linux or Mac clients as well as Windows clients, you can also enable SSO to probe the client for either NetAPI or WMI, depending on which is configured for the SSO Agent. This causes the SonicWall network security appliance to probe for a response on the NetAPI/WMI port before requesting that the SSO Agent identify a user. If no response occurs, these devices will fail SSO immediately. For a Windows PC the probe will generally work (unless blocked by a personal firewall) and the SonicWall SSO agent will be used. For a Linux/Mac PC (assuming it is not set up to run Samba server) the probe will fail, the SSO agent will be bypassed and NTLM authentication will be used when HTTP traffic is sent.

NTLM cannot identify the user until they browse with HTTP, so any traffic sent before that will be treated as unidentified. The default CFS policy will be applied, and any rule requiring authenticated users will not let the traffic pass.

If NTLM is configured to be used before the SonicWall SSO agent, then if HTTP traffic is received first, the user will be authenticated with NTLM. If non-HTTP traffic is received first, the SonicWall SSO agent will be used for authentication.

The number of NTLM user logins is combined with the number of SSO logins, and the total at any time cannot exceed the Max SSO Users limit for the appliance model. The specific Max SSO Users value is provided in the TSR. For information about the TSR, see the Using the Single Sign-On Statistics in the TSR.

How Does SonicWall SSO Agent Work?

The SonicWall SSO Agent can be installed on any workstation with a Windows domain that can communicate with clients and the SonicWall security appliance directly using the IP address or using a path, such as VPN. For installation instructions for the SonicWall SSO Agent, refer to the Installing the SonicWall SSO Agent.

Multiple SSO agents are supported to accommodate large installations with thousands of users. You can configure up to eight SSO agents, each running on a dedicated, high-performance PC in your network.

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NOTE: When using NetAPI or WMI, one SSO agent can support up to approximately 2500 users.When configured to read from domain controller security logs, one SSO agent can support a much larger number of users identified via that mechanism, potentially 50,000+ users. The actual number supported in either case depends on:
The performance level of the hardware that the SSO agent is running on,
How it is configured on the firewall,
Other network-dependent factors.

The SonicWall SSO Agent only communicates with clients and the SonicWall security appliance. See How SonicWall SSO Agent Works. SonicWall SSO Agent uses a shared key for encryption of messages between the SSO Agent and the SonicWall security appliance.

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IMPORTANT: The shared key generated in the SSO Agent and the key entered in the SonicWall security appliance during SSO configuration must match the SSO Agent-generated key exactly.

How SonicWall SSO Agent Works

The SonicWall security appliance queries the SonicWall SSO Agent over the default port 2258. The SSO Agent then communicates between the client and the SonicWall security appliance to determine the client’s user ID. The SonicWall SSO Agent is polled, at a rate that is configurable by the administrator, by the SonicWall security appliance to continually confirm a user’s login status.

Logging

The SonicWall SSO Agent sends log event messages to the Windows Event Log based on administrator-selected logging levels.

The SonicWall security appliance also logs SSO Agent-specific events in its event log. The following is a list of SSO Agent-specific log event messages from the SonicWall security appliance:

User login denied - not allowed by policy rule – The user has been identified and does not belong to any user groups allowed by the policy blocking the user’s traffic.
User login denied - not found locally – The user has not been found locally, and Allow only users listed locally is selected in the SonicWall security appliance.
User login denied - SSO Agent agent timeout – Attempts to contact the SonicWall SSO Agent have timed out.
User login denied - SSO Agent configuration error – The SSO Agent is not properly configured to allow access for this user.
User login denied - SSO Agent communication problem – There is a problem communicating with the workstation running the SonicWall SSO Agent.
User login denied - SSO Agent agent name resolution failed – The SonicWall SSO Agent is unable to resolve the user name.
SSO Agent returned user name too long – The user name is too long.
SSO Agent returned domain name too long – The domain name is too long.
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NOTE: The notes field of log messages specific to the SSO Agent will contain the text
<domain/user-name>, authentication by SSO Agent.

How Does SonicWall Terminal Services Agent Work?

The SonicWall TSA can be installed on any Windows Server machine with Terminal Services or Citrix installed. The server must belong to a Windows domain that can communicate with the SonicWall security appliance directly using the IP address or using a path, such as VPN. See How SonicWall Terminal Services Agent Works.

How SonicWall Terminal Services Agent Works

For installation instructions for the SonicWall TSA, refer to the Installing the SonicWall Terminal Services Agent.

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Multiple TSA Support

To accommodate large installations with thousands of users, SonicWall network security appliances are configurable for operation with multiple terminal services agents (one per terminal server). The number of agents supported depends on the model, as shown in Multiple TSA Support per Model.

 

Multiple TSA Support per Model

SonicWall Model

TS Agents Supported

NSA E8510

256

NSA E7500/E8500

256

NSA E6500

128

NSA E5500

64

NSA 5000

32

NSA 4500

16

NSA 3500

16

NSA 2600

8

NSA 2400

8

NSA 240

4

NSA 220

4

SOHO

Not supported

TZ 215 Series

4

TZ 210 Series

4

TZ 205 Series

Not supported

TZ 200 Series

Not supported

TZ 105 Series

Not supported

TZ 100 Series

Not supported

For all SonicWall network security appliances, a maximum of 32 IP addresses is supported per terminal server, where the server may have multiple NICs (network interface controllers). There is no limit on users per terminal server.

Encryption of TSA Messages and Use of Session IDs

SonicWall TSA uses a shared key for encryption of messages between the TSA and the SonicWall network security appliance when the user name and domain are contained in the message. The first open notification for a user is always encrypted, because the TSA includes the user name and domain.

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NOTE: The shared key is created in the TSA, and the key entered in the SonicWall network security appliance during SSO configuration must match the TSA key exactly.

The messages between the appliance and the TS agent (and the SSO agent too) are DES encrypted (using triple-DES) and DES uses a numeric key that can be represented by a hexadecimal string. Each octet of the key requires two hex digits to represent its value, hence the key needs to be a even number of hex digits.

Using a hexadecimal key contributes to the encryption strength. For example, if a pass-phrase was used instead and converted to a numeric key, the end result would be no different than using the numeric-key directly and the pass-phrase would be more guessable than the hex representation of the key.

* 
NOTE: The information being protected is actually not very sensitive. It is simply a mapping between user names and TCP/UDP connections (TSA) or user names and IP addresses (SSO). No sensitive data such as passwords is transferred.

The TSA includes a user session ID in all notifications rather than including the user name and domain every time. This is efficient, secure, and allows the TSA to re-synchronize with Terminal Services users after the agent restarts.

Connections to Local Subnets

The TSA dynamically learns network topology based on information returned from the appliance and, once learned, the TSA does not send notifications to the appliance for subsequent user connections that do not go through the appliance. As there is no mechanism for the TSA to “unlearn” these local destinations, the TSA should be restarted if a subnet is moved between interfaces on the appliance.

Non-Domain User Traffic from the Terminal Server

The SonicWall network security appliance has the Allow limited access for non-domain users setting for optionally giving limited access to non-domain users (those logged into their local machine and not into the domain), and this works for terminal services users as it does for other SSO users.

If your network includes non-Windows devices or Windows computers with personal firewalls running, check the box next to Probe user for and select the radio button for either NetAPI or WMI depending on which is configured for the SSO Agent. This causes the SonicWall network security appliance to probe for a response on the NetAPI/WMI port before requesting that the SSO Agent identify a user. If no response occurs, these devices will fail SSO immediately. Such devices do not respond to, or may block, the Windows networking messages used by the SSO Agent to identify a user.

Non-User Traffic from the Terminal Server

Non-user connections are opened from the Terminal Server for Windows updates and anti-virus updates. The TSA can identify a connection from a logged-in service as being a non-user connection, and indicates this in the notification to the appliance.

To control handling of these non-user connections, an Allow Terminal Server non-user traffic to bypass user authentication in access rules check box is available in the TSA configuration on the appliance. When selected, these connections are allowed. If this check box is not selected, then the services are treated as local users and can be given access by selecting the Allow limited access for non-domain users setting and creating user accounts on the appliance with the corresponding service names.

How Does Browser NTLM Authentication Work?

Topics:
NTLM Authentication of Domain Users

For domain users, the NTLM response is authenticated via the MSCHAP mechanism in RADIUS. RADIUS must be enabled on the appliance.

The following settings on the Users tab of the SSO configuration apply when configuring NTLM authentication:

Allow only users listed locally
Simple user names in local database
Mechanism for setting user group memberships (LDAP or local)
User group memberships can be set locally by duplicating LDAP user names (set in the LDAP configuration and applicable when the user group membership mechanism is LDAP)
Polling rate
NTLM Authentication of Non-Domain Users

With NTLM, non-domain users could be users who are logged into their PC rather than into the domain, or could be users who were prompted to enter a user name and password and entered something other than their domain credentials. In both cases, NTLM allows for distinguishing these from domain users.

If the user name matches a local user account on the SonicWall appliance then the NTLM response is validated locally against the password of that account. If successful, the user is logged in and given privileges based on that account. User group memberships are set from the local account, not from LDAP, and (as the password has been validated locally) include membership of the Trusted Users group.

If the user name does not match a local user account, the user is not logged in. The Allow limited access for non-domain users option does not apply for users authenticated via NTLM.

Credentials for NTLM Authentication in the Browser

For NTLM authentication, the browser either uses the domain credentials (if the user is logged into the domain), thus providing full single-sign-on functionality, or prompts the user to enter a name and password for the website being accessed (the SonicWall appliance in this case). Different factors affect the browser’s ability to use the domain credentials when the user is logged into the domain. These factors depend on the type of browser being used:

Internet Explorer – Internet Explorer uses the user’s domain credentials and authenticates transparently if the website that it is logging into the firewall (the SonicWall appliance) is in the local intranet, according to the Security tab in its Internet Options. This requires adding the firewall to the list of websites in the Local Intranet zone in the Internet Options.

This can be done via the domain’s group policy in the Site to Zone Assignment List under Computer Configuration, Administrative Templates, Windows Components, Internet Explorer, Internet Control Panel, Security Page.

* 
NOTE: Windows 7 and Vista machines require additional configuration to use RADIUS authentication with browser NTLM authentication via Internet Explorer. See Configuring NTLMv2 Session Security on Windows.
Google Chrome – Behaves the same as Internet Explorer, including requiring that the firewall is added to the list of websites in the Local Intranet zone in the Internet Options.
Firefox – Uses the user’s domain credentials and authenticates transparently if the website that it is logging into (the SonicWall appliance) is listed in the network.automatic-ntlm-auth.trusted-uris entry in its configuration (accessed by entering about:config in the Firefox address bar).
Safari – Although Safari does support NTLM, it does not currently support fully transparent logon using the user’s domain credentials.
Browsers on Non-PC Platforms – Non-PC platforms, such as Linux and Mac, can access resources in a Windows domain through Samba, but do not have the concept of “logging the PC into the domain” as Windows PCs do. Hence, browsers on these platforms do not have access to the user’s domain credentials and cannot use them for NTLM.

When a user is not logged into the domain or the browser cannot use their domain credentials, it will prompt for a name and password to be entered, or will use cached credentials if the user has previously opted to have it save them.

In all cases, should authentication fail when using the user’s domain credentials (which could be because the user does not have the privileges necessary to get access), then the browser prompts the user to enter a name and password. This allows the user to enter credentials different from the domain credentials to get access.

* 
NOTE: When NTLM is enabled for Single Sign-On enforcement, an HTTP/HTTPS access rule with Trusted Users as Users Allowed must be added to the LAN to WAN rules in the Firewall > Access Rules page. This rule will trigger an NTLM authentication request to the user. Without the access rule, other configurations such as restrictive Content Filter policies might block the user from Internet access and prevent the authentication request.

How Does RADIUS Accounting for Single-Sign-On Work?

* 
NOTE: Radius Accounting is supported only on the NSA 3500 and above.

RADIUS Accounting is specified by RFC 2866 as a mechanism for a network access server (NAS) to send user login session accounting messages to an accounting server. These messages are sent at user login and logoff. Optionally, they can also be sent periodically during the user’s session.

When a customer uses a third-part network access appliance to perform user authentication (typically for remote or wireless access) and the appliance supports RADIUS accounting, a SonicWall appliance can act as the RADIUS Accounting Server, and can use RADIUS Accounting messages sent from the customer's network access server for single sign-on (SSO) in the network.

When a remote user connects through a third-party appliance, the third-party appliance sends an accounting message to the SonicWall appliance (configured as a RADIUS accounting server). The SonicWall appliance adds the user to its internal database of logged in users based on the information in the accounting message.

When the user logs out, the third-party appliance sends another accounting message to the SonicWall appliance. The SonicWall appliance then logs the user out.

* 
NOTE: When a network access server (NAS) sends RADIUS accounting messages, it does not require the user to be authenticated by RADIUS. The NAS can send RADIUS accounting messages even when the third-party appliance is using LDAP, its local database, or any other mechanism to authenticate users.

RADIUS accounting messages are not encrypted. RADIUS accounting is inherently secure against spoofing because it uses a request authenticator and a shared secret. RADIUS accounting requires that a list of the network access servers (NASs), that can send RADIUS Accounting messages, be configured on the appliance. This configuration supplies the IP address and shared secret for each NAS.

Topics:
RADIUS Accounting Messages

RADIUS accounting uses two types of accounting messages:

Accounting-Request
Accounting-Response

An Accounting-Request can send one of three request types specified by the Status-Type attribute:

Start—sent when a user logs in.
Stop—sent when a user logs out.
Interim-Update—sent periodically during a user login session.

Accounting messages follow the RADIUS standard specified by RFC 2866. Each message contains a list of attributes and an authenticator that is validated by a shared secret.

The following attributes, that are relevant to SSO, are sent in Accounting-Requests:

Status-Type—The type of accounting request (Start, Stop, or Interim-Update).
User-Name—The user’s login name. The format is not specified by the RFC and can be a simple login name or a string with various values such as login name, domain, or distinguished name (DN).
Framed-IP-Address—The user's IP address. If NAT is used, this must be the user’s internal IP address.
Calling-Station-Id—A string representation of the user's IP address, used by some appliances such as the SMA 1000 Series.
Proxy-State—A pass-though state used for forwarding requests to another RADIUS accounting server.
SonicWall Compatibility with Third Party Network Appliances

For SonicWall appliances to be compatible with third party network appliances for SSO via RADIUS Accounting, the third party appliance must be able to do the following:

Support RADIUS Accounting.
Send both Start and Stop messages. Sending Interim-Update messages is not required.
Send the user’s IP address in either the Framed-IP-Address or Calling-Station-Id attribute in both Start and Stop messages.
* 
NOTE: In the case of a remote access server using NAT to translate a user’s external public IP address, the attribute must provide the internal IP address that is used on the internal network, and it must be a unique IP address for the user. If both attributes are being used, the Framed-IP-Address attribute must use the internal IP address, and the Calling-Station-Id attribute should use the external IP address.

The user’s login name should be sent in the User-Name attribute of Start messages and Interim-Update messages. The user’s login name can also be sent in the User-Name attribute of Stop messages, but is not required. The User-Name attribute must contain the user’s account name and may include the domain also, or it must contain the user’s distinguished name (DN).

Proxy Forwarding

A SonicWall appliance acting as a RADIUS accounting server can proxy-forward requests to up to four other RADIUS accounting servers for each network access server (NAS). Each RADIUS accounting server is separately configurable for each NAS.

To avoid the need to re-enter the configuration details for each NAS, the UI on the SonicWall appliance allows you to select the forwarding for each NAS from a list of configured servers.

The proxy forwarding configuration for each NAS client includes time outs and retries. How to forward requests to two or more servers can be configured by selecting the following options:

try the next server on a timeout
forward each request to all the servers
Non-Domain Users

Users reported to a RADIUS accounting server are determined to be local (non-domain) users in the following cases:

The user name was sent without a domain, and it is not configured to look up domains for the server via LDAP.
The user name was sent without a domain, and it is configured to look up domains for the server via LDAP, but the user name was not found.
The user name was sent with a domain, but the domain was not found in the LDAP database.
The user name was sent without a domain, but the user name was not found in the LDAP database.

A non-domain user authenticated by RADIUS accounting is subject to the same constraints as one authenticated by the other SSO mechanisms, and the following restrictions apply:

The user logged in only if Allow limited access for non-domain users is set.
The user is not made a member of the Trusted Users group.
IPv6 Considerations

In RADIUS accounting, these attributes are used to contain the user's IPv6 address:

Framed-Interface-Id / Framed-IPv6-Prefix
Framed-IPv6-Address

Currently, all these IPv6 attributes are ignored.

Some devices pass the IPv6 address as text in the Calling-Station-ID attribute.

The Calling-Station-ID is also ignored if it does not contain a valid IPv4 address.

RADIUS accounting messages that contain an IPv6 address attribute and no IPv4 address attribute are forwarded to the proxy server. If no proxy server is configured, IPv6 attributes discarded.

RADIUS Accounting Server

RADIUS accounting normally uses UDP port 1646 or 1813. UDP port 1813 is the IANA-specified port. UDP port 1646 is an older unofficial standard port. The SonicWall appliance listens on port 1812 by default. Other port numbers can be configured for the RADIUS accounting port, but the appliance can only listen on only one port. So, if you are using multiple network access servers (NASs), they must all be configured to communicate on the same port number.

Multiple Administrator Support Overview

Topics:

What is Multiple Administrators Support?

The original version of SonicOS supported only a single administrator to log on to a SonicWall Inc. security appliance with full administrative privileges. Additional users can be granted “limited administrator” access, but only one administrator can have full access to modify all areas of the SonicOS GUI at one time.

SonicOS releases 4.0 and higher provide support for multiple concurrent administrators. This feature allows for multiple users to log-in with full administrator privileges. In addition to using the default admin user name, additional administrator usernames can be created.

Because of the potential for conflicts caused by multiple administrators making configuration changes at the same time, only one administrator is allowed to make configuration changes. The additional administrators are given full access to the GUI, but they cannot make configuration changes.

Benefits

Multiple Administrators Support provides the following benefits:

Improved productivity - Allowing multiple administrators to access a SonicWall security appliance simultaneously eliminates “auto logout,” a situation that occurs when two administrators require access to the appliance at the same time and one is automatically forced out of the system.
Reduced configuration risk – The new read-only mode allows users to view the current configuration and status of a SonicWall security appliance without the risk of making unintentional changes to the configuration.

How Does Multiple Administrators Support Work?

Topics:
Configuration Modes

In order to allow multiple concurrent administrators, while also preventing potential conflicts caused by multiple administrators making configuration changes at the same time, the following configuration modes have been defined:

Configuration mode - Administrator has full privileges to edit the configuration. If no administrator is already logged into the appliance, this is the default behavior for administrators with full and limited administrator privileges (but not read-only administrators).
* 
NOTE: Administrators with full configuration privilege can also log in using the Command Line Interface (CLI).
Read-only mode - Administrator cannot make any changes to the configuration, but can view the browse the entire management UI and perform monitoring actions.

Only administrators that are members of the SonicWall Read-Only Admins user group are given read-only access, and it is the only configuration mode they can access.

Non-configuration mode - Administrator can view the same information as members of the read-only group and they can also initiate management actions that do not have the potential to cause configuration conflicts.

Only administrators that are members of the SonicWall Administrators user group can access non-configuration mode. This mode can be entered when another administrator is already in configuration mode and the new administrator chooses not to preempt the existing administrator. By default, when an administrator is preempted out of configuration mode, he or she is converted to non-configuration mode. On the System > Administration page, this behavior can be modified so that the original administrator is logged out.

Access Rights Available Based on Configuration Mode provides a summary of the access rights available to the configuration modes. Access rights for limited administrators are included also, but note that this table does not include all functions available to limited administrators.

 

Access Rights Available Based on Configuration Mode

Function

Full admin in config mode

Full admin in non‑config mode

Read-only administrator

Limited administrator

Import certificates

X

 

 

 

Generate certificate signing requests

X

 

 

 

Export certificates

X

 

 

 

Export appliance settings

X

X

X

 

Download TSR

X

X

X

 

Use other diagnostics

X

X

 

X

Configure network

X

 

 

X

Flush ARP cache

X

X

 

X

Setup DHCP Server

X

 

 

 

Renegotiate VPN tunnels

X

X

 

 

Log users off

X

X

 

X
guest users only

Unlock locked-out users

X

X

 

 

Clear log

X

X

 

X

Filter logs

X

X

X

X

Export log

X

X

X

X

Email log

X

X

 

X

Configure log categories

X

X

 

X

Configure log settings

X

 

 

X

Generate log reports

X

X

 

X

Browse the full UI

X

X

X

 

Generate log reports

X

X

 

X

User Groups

The Multiple Administrators Support feature introduces two new default user groups:

SonicWall Administrators - Members of this group have full administrator access to edit the configuration.
SonicWall Read-Only Admins - Members of this group have read-only access to view the full management interface, but they cannot edit the configuration and they cannot switch to full configuration mode.

It is not recommended to include users in more than one of these user groups. However, if you do so, the following behavior applies:

If members of the SonicWall Administrators user group are also included in the Limited Administrators or SonicWall Read-Only Admins user groups, the members will have full administrator rights.
If members of the Limited Administrators user group are included in the SonicWall Read-Only Admins user group, the members will have limited administrator rights.
Priority for Preempting Administrators

The following rules govern the priority levels that the various classes of administrators have for preempting administrators who are already logged into the appliance:

1
The admin user and SonicWall Global Management System (GMS) both have the highest priority and can preempt any users.
2
A user who is a member of the SonicWall Administrators user group can preempt any users except for the admin and SonicWall GMS.
3
A user who is a member of the Limited Administrators user group can only preempt other members of the Limited Administrators group.
GMS and Multiple Administrator Support

When using SonicWall GMS to manage a SonicWall security appliance, GMS frequently logs in to the appliance (for such activities as ensuring that GMS management IPsec tunnels have been created correctly). These frequent GMS log-ins can make local administration of the appliance difficult because the local administrator can be preempted by GMS.

Viewing User Status

The Users > Status page displays the Active User Sessions on the firewall. The Active User Sessions panel lists the User Name, IP Address, Session Time, Time Remaining, Inactivity Remaining, Settings, and Logout.

To log a user out, click the Logout icon at the end of the line for that user.

When you select the Show unauthenticated users option, the unauthenticated users are listed in the Unauthenticated Users panel of the Users > Status page.

When you select the Include inactive users option, the inactive users are listed in grey in the Active User Sessions panel of the Users > Status page.

On the Dashboard > User Monitor page, when you click the Tools icon, you can select the user types that you want to display, including Inactive Users.

When you select Inactive Users, the inactive users are shown in grey on the User Monitor. This graphic shows a test repeatedly logging 50,000 users in and then letting them go inactive:

On the Users > Status page, each panel has a Filter button and an associated input box to enter the filter string. Help information is displayed when you pause your mouse over the Filter button.

When you pause your mouse over the Stats button, the user counts are displayed.

Configuring User Settings

On this page, you can configure the authentication method required, global user settings, and an acceptable user policy that is displayed to users when logging onto your network.

Configuration instructions for the settings on this page are provided in the following sections:

Configuring User Authentication Settings

In the User authentication method drop-down list, select the type of user account management your network uses:
Select Local Users to configure users in the local database in the SonicWall appliance using the Users > Local Users and Users > Local Groups pages.

For information about using the local database for authentication, see Using Local Users and Groups for Authentication.

For detailed configuration instructions, see the following sections:

Select RADIUS if you have more than 1,000 users or want to add an extra layer of security for authenticating the user to the SonicWall. If you select RADIUS for user authentication, users must log into the SonicWall using HTTPS in order to encrypt the password sent to the SonicWall. If a user attempts to log into the SonicWall using HTTP, the browser is automatically redirected to HTTPS.

For information about using a RADIUS database for authentication, see Using RADIUS for Authentication.

For detailed configuration instructions, see Configuring RADIUS Authentication

Select RADIUS + Local Users if you want to use both RADIUS and the SonicWall local user database for authentication.
Select LDAP if you use a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server, Microsoft Active Directory (AD) server, or Novell eDirectory to maintain all your user account data.

For information about using an LDAP database for authentication, see Using LDAP/Active Directory/eDirectory Authentication.

For detailed configuration instructions, see Configuring LDAP Integration in SonicOS

Select LDAP + Local Users if you want to use both LDAP and the SonicWall local user database for authentication.
In the Single-sign-on method list, select one of the following:
Select SSO Agent if you are using Active Directory for authentication and the SonicWall SSO Agent is installed on a computer in the same domain.
Select Terminal Services Agent if you are using Terminal Services and the SonicWall Terminal Services Agent (TSA) is installed on a terminal server in the same domain.
Select Browser NTLM authentication if you want to authenticate Web users without using the SonicWall SSO Agent or TSA. Users are identified as soon as they send HTTP traffic. NTLM requires RADIUS to be configured (in addition to LDAP, if using LDAP), for access to MSCHAP authentication. If LDAP is selected above, a separate Configure button for RADIUS appears here when NTLM is selected.
Select RADIUS Accounting if you want a network access server (NAS) to send user login session accounting messages to an accounting server.

For detailed SSO configuration instructions, see Configuring Single Sign-On.

For Browser NTLM authentication configuration, see Configuring Your SonicWall Appliance for Browser NTLM Authentication.

Select Case-sensitive user names to enable matching based on capitalization of user account names.
Select Enforce login uniqueness to prevent the same user name from being used to log into the network from more than one location at a time. This setting applies to both local users and RADIUS/LDAP users. However, the login uniqueness setting does not apply to the default administrator with the username admin.
Select Force relogin after password change to force the user to login immediately after changing the password.
In the One-Time Password section, select the following:
Select either Plain text or HTML for One-time password Email format, depending on your preference if you are using One-Time Password authentication.
Select one of the following for One-time password format:
Characters
Characters+Numbers
Numbers
Enter the minimum and maximum values for One Time Password Length.

Configuring User Web Login Settings

In the Show user authentication page for field, enter the number of minutes that a user has to log in before the login page times out. If it times out, a message displays saying they must click before attempting to log in again.

When user authentication is enabled in SonicOS, a connecting user is redirected to a secure login page, using HTTPS. In previous releases, the administrator could only configure an appliance LAN IP address for the redirect. This redirect to “https://<local IP address>” could cause a certificate warning to display, requiring the user to click the option to continue to the website in order to log in.

SonicOS provides options under Redirect the browser to this appliance via: that allow you to enable redirecting to a domain name as well as to an IP address.

Options are available to redirect to the following:

The interface IP address – This option redirects the user to the IP address of the interface to which his computer or local network is connected. This operates the same as in previous releases.
Its domain name from a reverse DNS lookup of the interface IP address – This option causes the appliance to determine the Fully Qualified Domain Name of the interface IP address, and redirect the user to that domain name. For this to work, Reverse DNS must be enabled for the domain in the DNS server.

Click on the Show Cache button to display the Interface Host Names Reverse DNS Cache table, which lists Interface, IP Address, DNS Name, and TTL (secs).

Its configured domain name – This option redirects the user to the domain name that is configured on the System > Administration page. The firewall’s domain name must be configured there before this redirect can work, and in each zone that users will be logging in from, it must be a valid domain name that resolves to an interface IP address. Possible zones include LAN, WLAN, WAN, etc.

The domain name needs to be registered in the DNS server for each zone, and must resolve to the correct interface IP address for that zone. The domain name can be private, for internal users, or an externally registered domain name.

The name from the administration certificate – This option redirects the user to the domain name (common name) in the certificate that was imported. The certificate must be imported on the System > Administration page before this redirect can work, and as above it must be a valid domain name in each zone that users will be logging in from.

A SAN (Subject Alternative Names) certificate can secure multiple domain names. Importing this type of certificate allows error-free user authentication redirects for several domains.

Select Redirect users from HTTPS to HTTP on completion of login if you want users to be connected to the network through your SonicWall appliance via HTTP after logging in via HTTPS. If you have a large number of users logging in via HTTPS, you may want to redirect them to HTTP, because HTTPS consumes more system resources than HTTP. If you deselect this option, you will see a warning dialog.
Select Allow HTTP login with RADIUS CHAP mode to have a CHAP challenge be issued when a RADIUS user attempts to log in using HTTP. This allows for a secure connection without using HTTPS, preventing the browser from sending the password in clear text over HTTP. Be sure to check that the RADIUS server supports this option.
* 
NOTE: Administrators who log in using this method will be restricted in the management operations they can perform (because some operations require the appliance to know the administrator's password, which is not the case for this authentication method).

User Session Settings

The setting listed below applies to all users when authenticated through the SonicWall.

Inactivity timeout (minutes): users can be logged out of the SonicWall after a preconfigured inactivity time. Enter the number of minutes in this field. The default value is 15 minutes.

User Session Settings for SSO-Authenticated Users

If a user is identified to the SonicWall via an SSO mechanism, but no traffic has yet been received from the user, they are put into an inactive state where they are not using up resources and remain in that state until traffic is received.

Some SSO mechanisms do not give any way for the firewall to actively re-identify a user, and if users identified by such mechanisms do not send traffic, they will remain in the inactive state until the firewall receives a logout notification for the user. For other users who can be re-identified, if they stay inactive and do not send traffic, they will be aged-out and removed after a period that can be set here (pause the mouse over the setting for additional information).

If an SSO-identified user, who has been actively logged in, is timed out due to inactivity, then users who cannot be re-identified (see above) are returned to the inactive state. Here you can choose whether to do the same for other users who would otherwise be logged out on inactivity. Doing this avoids overhead and possible delays in re-identifying the user should they become active again.

* 
NOTE: There is an option on the Users > Status page to choose whether to include these inactive users in the list displayed there, and if they are included they are shown greyed. For more information, see Viewing User Status.

Configure the following options:

On inactivity timeout make users inactive instead of logging out: Select this option if you do not want inactive users to be logged out.
Age out inactive users after (minutes): Enter the number of minutes after which inactive users will be aged-out and removed if they stay inactive and do not send traffic. The minimum time is 10 minutes, the maximum time is 10000 minutes, and the default time is 60 minutes.
* 
NOTE: As the reasons for keeping inactive users separate from the active users is to minimize the resources used to manage them, the age-out timer runs only once every 10 minutes; thus, it can take up to 10 minutes longer than the specified time.

User Session Settings for Web Login

Enable login session limit for web logins: you can limit the time a user is logged into the SonicWall by selecting the check box and typing the amount of time, in minutes, in the Login session limit (minutes) field. The default value is 30 minutes.
Show user login status window: causes a status window to display with a Log Out button during the user’s session. This window must be kept open throughout the user’s session as closing it will log the user out. The user clicks the Log Out button to log out of their session.

The User Login Status dialog displays the number of minutes the user has left in the login session. The user can set the remaining time to a smaller number of minutes by entering the number and clicking the Update button.

* 
NOTE: If this status window is not enabled, then users may be unable to log out, and so a login session limit must be set to ensure that they do eventually get logged out.

If the user is a member of the SonicWall Administrators or Limited Administrators user group, the User Login Status window has a Manage button the user can click to automatically log into the SonicWall appliance’s management interface. See Disabling the User Login Status Popup for information about disabling the User Login Status window for administrative users. See Configuring Local Groups for group configuration procedures.

User's login status window sends heartbeat every (seconds): Sets the frequency of the heartbeat signal used to detect whether the user still has a valid connection. If this mechanism detects and logs out allows users who disconnect without logging out.
Enable disconnected user detection: Causes the SonicWall to detect when a user’s connection is no longer valid and end the session.
Timeout on heartbeat from user's login status window (minutes): Sets the time needed without a reply from the heartbeat before ending the user session.
Open user's login status window in the same window rather than in a popup: To open user's login status window in the same window rather than in a popup. This is useful for browsers that block pop-ups.

Other Global User Settings

Allow these HTTP URLs to bypass users authentication access rules: Define a list of URLs users can connect to without authenticating.

Topics:
Define HTTP URLS to bypass Authentication
To add a URL to the list:
1
Click Add below the URL list. The Add URL dialog displays.

2
Enter the top level URL you are adding, for example, www.SonicWall.com. All sub directories of that URL are included, such as www.SonicWall.com/us/Support.html.
For wildcard matching, prefix with *. and/or suffix with , for example: *.windowsupdate.com…
To allow access to a file on any host, prefix with */, for example: */wpad.dat.
3
Click on OK to add the URL to the list.
Auto-Configuration of URLs to Bypass User Authentication

You can use the Auto-Configure utility to temporarily allow traffic from a single specified IP address to bypass authentication. The destinations that traffic accesses are then recorded and used to allow that traffic to bypass user authentication. Typically, this is used to allow traffic such as anti-virus updates and Windows updates.

To auto-configure the URL bypass list:
1
On the Users > Settings page, under the Other Global User Settings heading, click the Auto-configure button. The Policy User Authentication Bypass Auto-Configuration dialog displays.

2
Enter the IP address that you want to allow traffic from and click Start.
3
Run the traffic that needs to bypass authentication. Traffic that would otherwise be blocked by firewall rules needing authentication will be allowed through and the destinations recorded. As traffic is detected, the destination addresses will be recorded in the window.
4
To convert a specific address to a more generic wildcard, select the address and click Convert to wildcard.
5
To convert a specific address to a more generic class B (16-bit) or class C (24-bit) network, select the address, click either Class B or Class C and click Convert to network(s).
* 
TIP: Windows Updates access some destinations via HTTPS, and those can only be tracked by IP address. However, the actual IP addresses accessed each time may vary and so rather than trying to set up a bypass for each such IP address, it may be better to use the Convert to network(s) option to set it up to allow bypass for HTTPS to all IP addresses in that network.
6
When you have detected all of the necessary addresses, click Stop.
7
Click Save Selected.
* 
TIP: You may want to run updates multiple times in case the destinations that are accessed may vary.

Acceptable Use Policy

An acceptable use policy (AUP) is a policy that users must agree to follow in order to access a network or the Internet. It is common practice for many businesses and educational facilities to require that employees or students agree to an acceptable use policy before accessing the network or Internet through the SonicWall.

The Acceptable Use Policy section allows you to create the AUP message window for users. You can use HTML formatting in the body of your message. Clicking the Example Template button creates a preformatted HTML template for your AUP window; see Creating an Example Template.

Display on login from - Select the network interface(s) you want to display the Acceptable Use Policy page when users login. You can choose Trusted Zones, WAN Zone, Public Zones, Wireless Zones, and VPN Zone in any combination.
Window size (pixels) - Allows you to specify the size of the AUP window defined in pixels:
Width: minimum is 400 pixels, maximum is 1280, and the default is 460.
Height: minimum is 200 pixels, maximum is 1024, and the default is 310.

Checking the Enable scroll bars on the window allows the user to scroll through the AUP window contents.

Enable scroll bars on window - Turns on the scroll bars if your content will exceed the display size of the window.
Acceptable use policy page content - Enter your text in the Acceptable Use Policy field. You can include HTML formatting. The page that is displayed to the user includes an I Accept button or Cancel button for user confirmation.

Creating an Example Template
1
Click the Example Template button to populate the content with the default AUP template, which you can modify:

<font face=arial size=3>

<center><b><i>Welcome to the SonicWall</center></b></i>

<font size=2>

<table width="100%" border="1">

<tr><td>

<font size=2>

<br><br><br>

<center>Enter your usage policy terms here.

<br><br><br>

</td></tr>

</table>

Click "I Accept" only if you wish to accept these terms and continue,

or otherwise select "Cancel".

2
Click the Preview button to display your AUP message as it will appear for the user.
3
To close the window, click either the I Accept or Cancel button.

Customize Login Pages

SonicOS provides the ability to customize the text of the login authentication pages that are presented to users. You can translate the login-related pages with their own wording and apply the changes so that they take effect without rebooting.

Although the entire SonicOS interface is available in different languages, sometimes you do not want to change the entire UI language to a specific local language. However, if the firewall requires authentication before users can access other networks, or enables external access services (for example, VPN, SSL-VPN), those login related pages usually should be localized to make them more usable for typical users.

The Customizable Login Pages feature provides the following functionality:

Keeps the style of original login by default
Allows you to customize login related pages
Allows you to use the default login related pages as templates
Allows you to save customized pages into system preferences
Allows you to preview their changes before saving to preferences
Presents customized login related pages to typical users

The following login-related pages can be customized:

 
Login Authentication
Policy Access Barred
Admin Preempt
Logged Out
Policy Access Down
User Password Update
Login Full
Policy Access Unavailable

 

Login Disallowed
Policy Login Redirect

 

Login Lockout
Policy SSO Probe Failure

 

Login Status

 

 

Guest Login Status

 

 

User Login Message

 

 

To customize a login page:
1
On the Users > Settings page, scroll down to the Customize Login Pages section.

2
Select the page to be customized from the Select Login Page drop-down menu.
3
Scroll to the bottom of the page and click Default to load the default content for the page.
4
Edit the content of the page.
* 
NOTE: The var strXXX = lines in the template pages are customized JavaScript Strings. You can change them into your preferring wording. Modifications should follow the JavaScript syntax. You can also edit the wording in the HTML section.
* 
CAUTION: Verify the HTML of your custom login page before deploying it because HTML errors may cause the login page to not function properly. An alternative login page is always available for you in case a customized login page has any issues. To access the alternate login page, manually input the URL http://(device_ip)/defauth.html or https://(device_ip)/defauth.html directly into the address line of browser (case sensitive). The default login page without any customization is then displayed, allowing you to login as normal and reset your customized login related pages.
5
Click Preview to preview how the customized page will look.
6
When you are finished editing the page, click Accept.

Leave the Login Page Content field blank, and apply the change to revert the default page to users.

Configuring Local Users

Local Users are users stored and managed on the security appliance’s local database. In the Users > Local Users page, you can view and manage all local users, add new local users, and edit existing local users. You can also import users from your LDAP server.

Topics:

Configuring Local User Settings

The following global settings can be configured for all local users in the Local User Settings section of the Users > Local Users page:

Apply password constraints for all local users - Applies the password constraints that are specified on the System > Administration page to all local users.
* 
NOTE: This does not affect the default “admin” user account.
Prune expired user account - For a user account that is configured with a limited lifetime, selecting this check box causes the user account to be deleted after the lifetime expires. Disable this check box to have the account simply be disabled after the lifetime expires. The administrator can then re-enable the account by resetting the account lifetime.

Viewing, Editing, and Deleting Local Users

You can view all the groups to which a user belongs on the Users > Local Users page in the table in the Local Users section. Click the Expand icon next to a user to view the group memberships for that user.

The three columns to the right of the user’s name list the privileges for the user. The expanded view displays the groups from which the user gets each privilege.

Hover the mouse pointer over the Comment icon in the VPN Access column to view the network resources to which the user has VPN access.
In the expanded view, click the Remove icon under Configure to remove the user from a group.
Click the Edit icon under Configure to edit the user.
Click the Delete icon under Configure to delete the user or group in that row.

Adding Local Users

You can add local users to the internal database on the SonicWall security appliance from the Users > Local Users page. Users can be added manually, as described here, or you can import users from an LDAP server, as described in the Importing Local Users from LDAP.

To manually add local users to the database:
1
Click Add User. The Add User dialog displays.

2
On the Settings tab, type the user name into the Name field.
3
In the Password field, type a password for the user. Passwords are case-sensitive and should consist of a combination of letters and numbers rather than names of family, friends, or pets.
4
Confirm the password by retyping it in the Confirm Password field.
5
Optionally, select the User must change password check box to force users to change their passwords the first time they log in.
6
Optionally, select the Require one-time passwords check box to enable this functionality requiring SSL VPN users to submit a system-generated password for two-factor authentication.
* 
TIP: If a Local User does not have one-time password enabled, while a group it belongs to does, make sure the user’s email address is configured, otherwise this user cannot log in.
7
Enter the user’s email address so they may receive one-time passwords in the E-mail Address field.
8
In the Account Lifetime drop-down menu, select one of these:
Never expires to make the account permanently.
Minutes, Hours, or Days to specify a lifetime after which the user account will either be deleted or disabled.

If you select a limited lifetime, the Prune expired user account check box displays and is selected by default. When selected, the user account will be deleted after the lifetime expires. Disable this check box to have the account simply be disabled after the lifetime expires. You can then re-enable the account by resetting the account lifetime.

9
Optionally enter a comment in the Comment field.
10
On the Groups tab, under User Groups, select one or more groups to which the user will belong, and click the arrow button -> to move the group name(s) into the Member of list. The user will be a member of the selected groups. To remove the user from a group, select the group from the Member of list, and click the left arrow button <-.

11
The VPN Access tab configures which network resources VPN users (either GVC, NetExtender, or Virtual Office bookmarks) can access. On the VPN Access tab, select one or more networks from the Networks list and click the right arrow button (->) to move them to the Access List column. To remove the user’s access to a network, select the network from the Access List, and click the left arrow button (<-).
* 
NOTE: The VPN access tab affects the ability of remote clients using GVC, NetExtender, and Virtual Office bookmarks to access network resources. To allow GVC, NetExtender, or Virtual Office users to access a network resource, the network address objects or groups must be added to the “allow” list on the VPN Access tab.

12
On the Bookmark tab, you can add, edit, or delete Virtual Office bookmarks for each user who is a member of a related group.

 
* 
NOTE: Users must be members of the SSLVPN Services group before you can configure Bookmarks for them.
13
Click OK to complete the user configuration.

Editing Local Users

You can edit local users from the Users > Local Users screen.

To edit a local user:
1
In the list of users, click the Edit icon under Configure in same line as the user you want to edit.
2
Configure the Settings, Groups, VPN Access, and Bookmark tabs exactly as when adding a new user. See Adding Local Users.

Importing Local Users from LDAP

You can configure local users on the SonicWall by retrieving the user names from yoSonicWallur LDAP server. The Import from LDAP button launches a dialog box containing the list of user names available for import to the SonicWall.

Having users on the SonicWall with the same name as existing LDAP/AD users allows SonicWall user privileges to be granted upon successful LDAP authentication.

The list of users read from the LDAP server can be quite long, and you will probably only want to import a small number of them. A Remove from list button is provided, along with several methods of selecting unwanted users.You can use these options to reduce the list to a manageable size and then select the users to import.

To import users from the LDAP server:
1
Navigate to the Users > Settings page.
2
From the User Authentication method drop-down menu, select either LDAP or LDAP + Local Users. The page changes slightly.

3
Click the Configure LDAP button. The LDAP Configuration dialog displays.

4
Click the Users & Groups tab.

5
Optionally, select Allow only users listed locally.
6
To import users from the LDAP server, click the Import Users button. The LDAP Import Users dialog displays.

7
In the LDAP Import Users dialog, you can select individual users or select all users. To select all users in the list, select the Select/deselect all check box at the top of the list. To clear all selections, click it again.
8
To remove one or more users from the displayed list, select one of the following options near the bottom of the page, and then click Remove from list:
To remove the users whose checkboxes you have selected, select the All selected users radio button.
To remove certain users on the basis of name, description, or location:
a)
Select the Any user whose <field1> contains <field2> radio button.
b)
From the drop-down menu, select:
name – The user name displayed in the left column of the list.
description – The description displayed to the right of the user name (not present for all users).
location – The location of the user object in the LDAP directory. The location, along with the full user name, is displayed by a mouse-over on a user name, as shown in the LDAP Import Users dialog shown in Step 6.
c)
Enter the value to match into the second field.

For example, you might want to remove accounts that are marked as “Disabled” in their descriptions. In this case, select description in the first field and type Disabled in the second field. The second field is case-sensitive, so if you typed disabled you would prune out a different set of users.

To remove certain users from the list on the basis of their location in the LDAP directory, select the All users <field1> <field2> radio button. In the first field, select either at or at or under from the drop-down menu. In the second field, select the LDAP directory location from the drop-down menu.
* 
NOTE: It is not necessary to remove users from the list not to import them. Doing so simply makes it easier to see those remaining in the list. If you choose not to do this, you can jump straight to Step 11.
9
Repeat Step 8 to prune out additional users, until you have a manageable list to select from for import.
10
To undo all changes made to the list of users:
a
Click Undo. A confirmation message displays.
b
Click OK.
11
When finished pruning out as many unwanted accounts as possible with the Remove from list options, use the checkboxes in the list to select the accounts to import.
12
Click Save selected.
13
Click OK.
14
Configure the other tabs as necessary.
15
Click Apply.
16
Click Accept. A confirmation message displays.

17
Click OK.

Configuring Local Groups

Local groups are displayed in the Local Groups table. The table lists Name, Bypass Content Filters, Guest Services, Admin (access type), VPN Access, and Configure.

A default group, Everyone, is listed in the table. Click the Edit icon in the Configure column to review or change the settings for Everyone.

Topics:

Creating a Local Group

This section describes how to create a local group, but also applies to editing existing local groups. To edit a local group, click the edit icon in same line as the group that you want to edit, then follow the steps in this procedure.

When adding or editing a local group, you can add other local groups as members of the group.

To add a local group:
1
Click the Add Group button to display the Add Group dialog.
2
On the Settings tab, type a user name into the Name field. Optionally, you may select the Members go straight to the management UI on web login check box. This selection will only apply if this new group is subsequently given membership in another administrative group. You may also select the Require one-time passwords check box to require SSL VPN users to submit a system-generated password for two-factor authentication. Users must have their email addresses set when this feature is enabled.

* 
NOTE: For one-time password capability, remote users can be controlled at the group level. LDAP users’ email addresses are retrieved from the server when original authentication is done. Authenticating remote users through RADIUS requires administrators to manually enter email addresses in the management interface, unless RADIUS user settings are configured to Use LDAP to retrieve user group information.
3
On the Members tab, to add users and other groups to this group, select the user or group from the Non-Members Users and Groups list and click the right arrow button.

4
The VPN Access tab configures which network resources VPN users (either GVC, NetExtender, or Virtual Office bookmarks) can access. On the VPN Access tab, select one or more networks from the Networks list and click the right arrow button (->) to move them to the Access List column. To remove the user’s access to a network, select the network from the Access List, and click the left arrow button (<-).
* 
NOTE: The VPN access tab affects the ability of remote clients using GVC, NetExtender, and SSL VPN Virtual Office bookmarks to access network resources. To allow GVC, NetExtender, or Virtual Office users to access a network resource, the network address objects or groups must be added to the “allow” list on the VPN Access tab.

* 
NOTE: You can configure SSL VPN Access Lists for numerous users at the group level. To do this, build an Address Object on the Network > Address Objects management interface, such as for a public file server that all users of a group need access to. This newly created object now appears on the VPN Access tab under Networks, so that you may assign groups by adding it to the Access List.
5
On the CFS Policy tab, to enforce a custom Content Filtering Service policy for this group, select the CFS policy from the Policy drop-down menu.

* 
NOTE: You can create custom Content Filtering Service policies in the Security Services > Content Filter page. See Security Services > Content Filter.
6
On the Bookmark tab, you can add, edit, or delete Virtual Office bookmarks for each group.

7
Click OK.

Importing Local Groups from LDAP

You can configure local user groups on the SonicWall by retrieving the user group names from your LDAP server. The Import from LDAP... button launches a dialog box containing the list of user group names available for import to the SonicWall.

Having user groups on the SonicWall with the same name as existing LDAP/AD user groups allows SonicWall group memberships and privileges to be granted upon successful LDAP authentication.

To import groups from the LDAP server:
1
In the Users > Settings page, set the User Authentication Method to LDAP. The Configure LDAP button moves up.

2
Click the Configure LDAP button. The LDAP Configuration dialog displays.

3
Click the Users & Groups tab.

4
Optionally, select Allow only users listed locally.
5
Optionally, select User group memberships can be set locally by duplicating LDAP user names.
6
Optionally, select a default LDAP user group from the Default LDAP User Group drop-down menu.
7
To import users from the LDAP server, click the Import Users button. The LDAP Import Users dialog displays.

8
To remove one or more users from the displayed list, select one of the following options near the bottom of the page, and then click Remove from list:
To remove the users whose checkboxes you have selected, select the All selected users radio button.
To remove certain users on the basis of name, description, or location, select the Any user whose <menu1> contains <field1> radio button. Select name, description, or location from the <menu1> drop-down menu, and type the value to match into the second field.

In this option, name refers to the user name displayed in the left column of the list, description refers to the description displayed to its right (not present for all users), and location refers to the location of the user object in the LDAP directory. The location, along with the full user name, is displayed by a mouse-over on a user name.

For example, you might want to remove accounts that are marked as “Disabled” in their descriptions. In this case, select description in the first field and type Disabled in the second field. The second field is case-sensitive, so if you typed disabled you would prune out a different set of users.

To remove certain users from the list on the basis of their location in the LDAP directory, select the All users <menu1> <menu2> radio button. From the first drop-down menu, select either at or at or under. From the second drop-down menu, select the LDAP directory location.
* 
NOTE: It is not necessary to remove users from the list to not import them. Doing so simply makes it easier to see those remaining in the list. If you choose not to do this, go to Step 11.
9
Repeat the previous step to prune out additional users, until you have a manageable list to select from for import.
10
To undo all changes made to the list of users, click Undo and then click OK in the confirmation dialog box.
11
When finished pruning out as many unwanted accounts as possible with the Remove from list options, use the checkboxes in the list to select the accounts to import and then click Save selected. The LDAP Import Users window closes.
12
On the Users & Groups tab of the LDAP Configuration dialog, click the Import user groups button. The LDAP Import User Groups dialog displays.

13
Optionally select the check box for groups that you do not want to import, and then click Remove from list.
14
To undo all changes made to the list of groups, click Undo and then click OK in the confirmation dialog box.
15
When finished pruning the list to a manageable size, select the check box for each group that you want to import into the SonicWall.
16
Click Save selected. The LDAP Import User Groups dialog closes.
17
Optionally, select Mirror LDAP user groups locally. If you do not want to enable LDAP User Group Mirroring, go to Step 27.

When LDAP User Group Mirroring is enabled, the SonicWall appliance will periodically auto-import user groups and user-group nestings (memberships where groups are members of other groups) from the LDAP server(s) to create local user groups that mirror those in the LDAP directory.

These mirror user groups are listed separately on the Users / Local Groups page and have names that include the domain in which they are located. They can be selected in access rules, CFS policies, and so forth, just like other local user groups, although there are a few restrictions; for example, they cannot have other user groups added as members locally on the SonicWall, although they can be made members of other local user groups and local users can be made member os them.

Users who are members of a user group on the LADAP server automatically get any access privileges set via its local mirror group.

The groups are imported from the directory trees configured in the Trees containing user groups list on the Directory tab, and filters can be set to exclude importing groups from given sub-trees under those.

The maximum number of user groups that can be imported is limited per product (on this SonicWall appliance), and an event log will be generated if not all the groups found on the LDAP server can be imported due to exceeding the limit.

* 
TIP: To avoid exceeding the limit, select to import only groups that have members and/or set the filters to avoid importing unneeded groups in Step 20 through Step 21. To obtain an XML list of all the user groups that the SonicWall appliance will try to mirror, enter the following in the browser’s address bar: https://<ip-address>/ldapMirror.xml
18
Specify a refresh period in the Refresh period (minutes) field. The default is 5 minutes.
19
To read mirrored groups from the LDAP server now, click the Refresh now button.
20
Select the type of groups to be mirrored from the radio buttons:
All user groups on the LDAP server
Only groups that have member users or groups
21
Exclude user groups to be mirrored by adding them to the Exclude groups in these sub-trees table. To add a sub-tree, click the Add button. A New Tree pop-up dialog displays.

22
Enter the name of a sub-tree in the Enter new tree field.
23
Click OK.
24
To edit a sub-tree, click on it and then the Edit button.
25
To remove a sub-tree, click on it and then the Remove button.
26
To reorder the entries in the table, click on one and move it up or down with the Up and Down arrow icons.
27
When you have finished, click OK or Apply.

Configuring RADIUS Authentication

For an introduction to RADIUS authentication in SonicOS, see Using RADIUS for Authentication. If you selected RADIUS or RADIUS + Local Users from the Authentication method for login drop-down menu on the Users > Settings page, the Configure button becomes available.

A separate Configure button for RADIUS is also available if you selected Browser NTLM authentication only from the Single-sign-on method drop-down menu, or in various cases where configuration elsewhere may require that RADIUS be used. The configuration process is the same.

The actual authentication method is selected automatically when using RADIUS, so there are no configuration options for it in the RADIUS configuration window. RADIUS is fully secure in any mode, including its standard mode (often inaccurately referred to as PAP mode) as well as CHAP, MSCHAP, and MSCHAPv2, so there is generally no reason to force RADIUS CHAP mode versus standard RADIUS mode. The only reason to choose MSCHAP/MSCHAPv2 is to make use of the password updating feature these offer, and this can be configured elsewhere.

* 
NOTE: Standard mode RADIUS is a secure back end that can be used with various front ends, including the insecure PPP PAP protocol. The SonicWall network security appliance uses it with a secure front end over HTTPS/SSL or IPsec, and so the entire authentication channel from the user to the RADIUS server is secure (even if PPP PAP is used with L2TP, it is secure as it runs over IPsec).

The following points describe the selection of authentication methods when using RADIUS:

With L2TP, the relevant RADIUS protocol is automatically selected according to the PPP protocol being used.
With VPN including Global VPN Client, RADIUS MSCHAP/MSCHAPv2 mode can be forced to allow password updating. This can be selected in the VPN > Advanced page and the SSL VPN > Server Settings page.
Other scenarios all involve authenticating internal users and there is no need to provide a mechanism for password update (they can do it locally on their PCs). Standard RADIUS mode is used in this case.
The Allow HTTP login with RADIUS CHAP mode option on the Users > Settings page allows users to log in via HTTP rather than HTTPS when using RADIUS to authenticate them. CHAP mode provides a challenge protocol for authentication so that the browser does not send the user’s password in the clear over HTTP.
Topics:

Configuring RADIUS Settings

To configure RADIUS settings:
1
Click Configure RADIUS to set up your RADIUS server settings on the SonicWall. The RADIUS Configuration dialog is displayed.

2
Under Global RADIUS Settings, type in a value for the RADIUS Server Timeout (seconds). The range is 1-60 seconds with a default value of 5 seconds.
3
In the Retries field, enter the number of times the SonicWall will attempt to contact the RADIUS server. If the RADIUS server does not respond within the specified number of retries, the connection is dropped. This field can range between 0 and 10, with a recommended setting of 3 RADIUS server retries.
4
Click OK.

RADIUS Servers

In the RADIUS Servers section, you can designate the primary and optionally, the secondary RADIUS server. An optional secondary RADIUS server can be defined if a backup RADIUS server exists on the network.

1
In the Primary Server section, type the host name or IP address of the RADIUS server in the Name or IP Address field.
2
Type the RADIUS server administrative password or “shared secret” in the Shared Secret field. The alphanumeric Shared Secret can range from 1 to 31 characters in length. The shared secret is case sensitive.
3
Type the Port Number for the RADIUS server to use for communication with the SonicWall. The default is 1812.
4
In the Secondary Server section, optionally type the host name or IP address of the secondary RADIUS server in the Name or IP Address field.
5
Type the RADIUS server administrative password or “shared secret” in the Shared Secret field. The alphanumeric Shared Secret can range from 1 to 31 characters in length. The shared secret is case sensitive.
6
Type the Port Number for the secondary RADIUS server to use for communication with the SonicWall. The default is 1812.

RADIUS Users Settings

On the RADIUS Users tab you can specify what types of local or LDAP information to use in combination with RADIUS authentication. You can also define the default user group for RADIUS users.

Topics:
Configuring RADIUS User Settings
To configure the RADIUS user settings:
1
On the RADIUS Users tab, select Allow only users listed locally if only the users listed in the SonicWall database are authenticated using RADIUS.
2
Select the mechanism used for setting user group memberships for RADIUS users from the following choices:
Select Use SonicWall vendor-specific attribute on RADIUS server to apply a configured vendor-specific attribute from the RADIUS server. The attribute must provide the user group to which the user belongs.
Select Use RADIUS Filter-ID attribute on RADIUS server to apply a configured Filter-ID attribute from the RADIUS server. The attribute must provide the user group to which the user belongs.
Select Use LDAP to retrieve user group information to obtain the user group from the LDAP server. You can click the Configure button to set up LDAP if you have not already configured it or if you need to make a change. For information about configuring LDAP, see Configuring the SonicWall Appliance for LDAP.
If you do not plan to retrieve user group information from RADIUS or LDAP, select Local configuration only.
For a shortcut for managing RADIUS user groups, check Memberships can be set locally by duplicating RADIUS user names. When you create users with the same name locally on the security appliance and manage their group memberships, the memberships in the RADIUS database will automatically change to mirror your local changes.
3
If you have previously configured User Groups on the SonicWall, select the group from the Default user group to which all RADIUS users belong drop-down menu.
Creating a New User Group for RADIUS Users

In the RADIUS User Settings screen, you can create a new group by choosing Create a new user group... from the Default user group to which all RADIUS users belong drop-down menu:

1
Select Create a new user group... The Add Group dialog displays.
2
In the Settings tab, enter a name for the group. You may enter a descriptive comment as well.

3
In the Members tab, select the members of the group. Select the users or groups you want to add in the left column and click the right arrow button.
4
Click Add All to add all users and groups.

* 
NOTE: You can add any group as a member of another group except Everybody and All RADIUS Users. Be aware of the membership of the groups you add as members of another group.
5
In the VPN Access tab, select the network resources to which this group will have VPN Access by default.
* 
NOTE: Group VPN access settings affect remote clients and SSL VPN Virtual Office bookmarks.

6
If you have Content Filtering Service (CFS) on your security appliance, you can configure the content filtering policy for this group on the CFS Policy tab. See Security Services > Content Filter for instructions on registering for and managing the SonicWall Content Filtering Service.

RADIUS with LDAP for User Groups

When RADIUS is used for user authentication, there is an option on the RADIUS Users page in the RADIUS configuration to allow LDAP to be selected as the mechanism for setting user group memberships for RADIUS users:

When Use LDAP to retrieve user group information is selected, after authenticating a user via RADIUS, his/her user group membership information will be looked up via LDAP in the directory on the LDAP/AD server.

* 
NOTE: If this mechanism is not selected, and one-time password is enabled, a RADIUS user will be receive a one-time password fail message when attempting to log in through SSL VPN.

Clicking the Configure button launches the LDAP Configuration dialog.

* 
NOTE: In this case LDAP is not dealing with user passwords and the information that it reads from the directory is normally unrestricted, so operation without TLS could be selected, ignoring the warnings, if TLS is not available (for example, if certificate services are not installed with Active Directory). However, it must be ensured that security is not compromised by the SonicWall doing a clear-text login to the LDAP server; for example, create a user account with read-only access to the directory dedicated for the SonicWall’s use. Do not use the administrator account in this case.

RADIUS Client Test

To test your RADIUS Client user name, password, and other settings, click the Test tab in the RADIUS Configuration dialog.

* 
NOTE: Performing the test applies any changes you have made.

To test your RADIUS settings:
1
In the User field, type a valid RADIUS login name.
2
In the Password field, type the password.
3
For Test, select one of the following:
Password authentication: Select this to use the password for authentication.
CHAP: Select this to use the Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. After initial verification, CHAP periodically verifies the identity of the client by using a three-way handshake.
MSCHAP: Select this to use the Microsoft implementation of CHAP. MSCHAP works for all Windows versions before Windows Vista.
MSCHAPv2: Select this to use the Microsoft version 2 implementation of CHAP. MSCHAPv2 works for Windows 2000 and later versions of Windows.
4
Click the Test button. If the validation is successful, the Status message changes from Ready to Success. If the validation fails, the Status message changes to Failure.
5
To complete the RADIUS configuration, click OK.

Once the SonicWall has been configured, a VPN Security Association requiring RADIUS authentication prompts incoming VPN clients to type a User Name and Password into a dialog.

Configuring LDAP Integration in SonicOS

Integrating your SonicWall appliance with an LDAP directory service requires configuring your LDAP server for certificate management, installing the correct certificate on your SonicWall appliance, and configuring the SonicWall appliance to use the information from the LDAP Server. For an introduction to LDAP, see Using LDAP/Active Directory/eDirectory Authentication.

Topics:

Preparing Your LDAP Server for Integration

Before beginning your LDAP configuration, you should prepare your LDAP server and your SonicWall for LDAP over TLS support. This requires:

Installing a server certificate on your LDAP server.
Installing a CA (Certificate Authority) certificate for the issuing CA on your SonicWall appliance.

The following procedures describe how to perform these tasks in an Active Directory environment:

Configuring the CA on the Active Directory Server

To configure the CA on the Active Directory server (skip the first five steps if Certificate Services are already installed):

1
Navigate to Start > Settings > Control Panel > Add/Remove Programs
2
Select Add/Remove Windows Components
3
Select Certificate Services
4
Select Enterprise Root CA when prompted.
5
Enter the requested information. For information about certificates on Windows systems, see http://support.microsoft.com/kb/931125.
6
Launch the Domain Security Policy application.
7
Navigate to Start > Run and run the command: dompol.msc.
8
Open Security Settings > Public Key Policies.
9
Right click Automatic Certificate Request Settings.
10
Select New > Automatic Certificate Request.
11
Step through the wizard, and select Domain Controller from the list.
Exporting the CA Certificate from the Active Directory Server
To export the CA certificate from the AD server:
1
Launch the Certification Authority application: Start > Run > certsrv.msc.
2
Right click on the CA you created, and select properties.
3
On the General tab, click the View Certificate button.
4
On the Details tab, select Copy to File.
5
Step through the wizard, and select the Base-64 Encoded X.509 (.cer) format.
6
Specify a path and filename to which to save the certificate.
Importing the CA Certificate onto the SonicWall
To import the CA certificate onto the SonicWall:
1
Browse to System > CA Certificates.
2
Select Add new CA certificate. Browse to and select the certificate file you just exported.
3
Click the Import certificate button.

Configuring the SonicWall Appliance for LDAP

The Users > Settings page provides the settings for managing your LDAP integration:

1
Navigate to the Users > Settings page.
2
In the Authentication method for login drop-down menu, select either LDAP or LDAP + Local Users.

3
Click Configure.
4
If you are connected to your SonicWall appliance via HTTP rather than HTTPS, you will see a dialog box warning you of the sensitive nature of the information stored in directory services and offering to change your connection to HTTPS. If you have HTTPS management enabled for the interface to which you are connected (recommended), click Yes.
5
On the Settings tab of the LDAP Configuration dialog, configure the following fields:

Name or IP Address – The FQDN or the IP address of the LDAP server against which you wish to authenticate. If using a name, be certain that it can be resolved by your DNS server. Also, if using TLS with the Require valid certificate from server option, the name provided here must match the name to which the server certificate was issued (that is, the CN) or the TLS exchange will fail.
Port Number – The default LDAP over TLS port number is TCP 636. The default LDAP (unencrypted) port number is TCP 389. If you are using a custom listening port on your LDAP server, specify it here.
Server timeout – The amount of time, in seconds, that the SonicWall will wait for a response from the LDAP server before timing out. Allowable ranges are 1 to 99999, with a default of 10 seconds.
Overall operation timeout – The amount of time, in minutes, to spend on any automatic operation. Some operations, such as directory configuration or importing user groups, can take several minutes, especially when multiple LDAP servers are in use. The default setting is 5 minutes.
Select one of the following radio buttons:
Anonymous Login – Some LDAP servers allow for the tree to be accessed anonymously. If your server supports this (Active Directory generally does not), then you may select this option.
Give login name/location in tree – Select this option to build the distinguished name (dn) that is used to bind to the LDAP server from the Login user name and User tree for login to server fields according to the following rules:
The first name component begins cn=
The ‘location in tree’ components all use ou= (apart from certain Active Directory built-ins that begin with cn=)
The domain components all use dc=

If the User tree for login to server field is given as a dn, you can also select this option if the bind dn conforms to the first bullet above, but not to the second and/or the third bullet.

Give bind distinguished name – Select this option if the bind dn does not conform to the first bullet above (if the first name component does not begin with cn=). This option can always be selected if the dn is known. You must provide the bind dn explicitly if the bind dn does not conform to the first bullet above.
Login user name – Specify a user name that has rights to log in to the LDAP directory. The login name will automatically be presented to the LDAP server in full dn notation. This can be any account with LDAP read privileges (essentially any user account) – Administrative privileges are not required.
* 
NOTE: This is the user’s name, not their login ID (for example, Jones Smith rather than jsmith).

Login password – The password for the user account specified above.
Protocol version – Select either LDAPv3 or LDAPv2. Most modern implementations of LDAP, including Active Directory, employ LDAPv3.
Use TLS – Use Transport Layer Security (SSL) to log in to the LDAP server. It is strongly recommended that TLS be used to protected the username and password information that will be sent across the network. Most modern implementations of LDAP server, including Active Directory, support TLS. Deselecting this default setting will display an alert that you must accept to proceed.
Send LDAP ‘Start TLS’ Request – Some LDAP server implementations support the Start TLS directive rather than using native LDAP over TLS. This allows the LDAP server to listen on one port (normally 389) for LDAP connections, and to switch to TLS as directed by the client. Active Directory does not use this option, and it should only be selected if required by your LDAP server.
Require valid certificate from server – Validates the certificate presented by the server during the TLS exchange, matching the name specified above to the name on the certificate. Deselecting this default option will present an alert, but exchanges between the SonicWall and the LDAP server will still use TLS – only without issuance validation.
Local certificate for TLS – Optional, to be used only if the LDAP server requires a client certificate for connections. Useful for LDAP server implementations that return passwords to ensure the identity of the LDAP client (Active Directory does not return passwords). This setting is not required for Active Directory.

If your network uses multiple LDAP/AD servers with referrals, then select one as the primary server (probably the one that holds the bulk of the users) and use the above settings for that server. It will then refer the SonicWall on to the other servers for users in domains other than its own. For the SonicWall to be able to log in to those other servers, each server must have a user configured with the same credentials (user name, password and location in the directory) as the login to the primary server. This may entail creating a special user in the directory for the SonicWall login. Note that only read access to the directory is required.

6
On the Schema tab, configure the following fields:

LDAP Schema – Select one of the following:
Microsoft Active Directory
RFC2798 inetOrgPerson
RFC2307 Network Information Service
Samba SMB
Novell eDirectory
User defined

Selecting any of the predefined schemas populates the fields used by that schema automatically with their correct values. Selecting User defined allows you to specify your own values — use this only if you have a specific or proprietary LDAP schema configuration.

Object class – Select the attribute that represents the individual user account to which the next two fields apply.
Login name attribute – Select one of the following to define the attribute that is used for login authentication:
sAMAccountName for Microsoft Active Directory
inetOrgPerson for RFC2798 inetOrgPerson
posixAccount for RFC2307 Network Information Service
sambaSAMAccount for Samba SMB
inetOrgPerson for Novell eDirectory
Qualified login name attribute – Optionally select an attribute of a user object that sets an alternative login name for the user in name@domain format. This may be needed with multiple domains in particular, where the simple login name may not be unique across domains. This is set to mail for Microsoft Active Directory and RFC2798 inetOrgPerson.
User group membership attribute – Select the attribute that contains information about the groups to which the user object belongs. This is memberOf in Microsoft Active Directory. The other predefined schemas store group membership information in the group object rather than the user object, and therefore do not use this field.
Framed IP address attribute – Select the attribute that can be used to retrieve a static IP address that is assigned to a user in the directory. Currently it is only used for a user connecting via L2TP with the SonicWall’s L2TP server. In the future this may also be supported for Global VPN Client. In Active Directory the static IP address is configured on the Dial-in tab of a user’s properties.
User Group Objects – This section is auto-configured unless you select User Defined for the LDAP Schema.
Object class – Specify the name associated with the group of attributes.
Member attribute – Specify the attribute associated with a member.
Select whether this attribute is a Distinguished name or User ID.
Read from server – Click to read the user group object information from the LDAP server.
Select whether you want to Automatically update the schema configuration or Export details of the schema.
7
On the Directory tab, configure the following fields:

Primary Domain – The user domain used by your LDAP implementation. For AD, this will be the Active Directory domain name, for example, yourADdomain.com. Changes to this field will, optionally, automatically update the tree information in the rest of the page. This is set to mydomain.com by default for all schemas except Novell eDirectory, for which it is set to o=mydomain.
User tree for login to server – The tree in which the user specified in the Settings tab resides. For example, in Active Directory the administrator account’s default tree is the same as the user tree.
Trees containing users – The trees where users commonly reside in the LDAP directory. One default value is provided which can be edited, and up to a total of 64 DN values may be provided. The SonicWall will search the directory using them all until a match is found, or the list is exhausted. If you have created other user containers within your LDAP or AD directory, you should specify them here.
Trees containing user groups – Same as above, only with regard to user group containers, and a maximum of 32 DN values may be provided. These are only applicable when there is no user group membership attribute in the schema's user object, and are not used with AD.

All the above trees are normally given in URL format but can alternatively be specified as distinguished names (for example, myDom.com/Sales/Users could alternatively be given as the DN ou=Users,ou=Sales,dc=myDom,dc=com). The latter form is necessary if the DN does not conform to the normal formatting rules as per that example.

In Active Directory the URL corresponding to the distinguished name for a tree is displayed on the Object tab in the properties of the container at the top of the tree.

* 
NOTE: AD has some built-in containers that do not conform (for example, the DN for the top-level Users container is formatted as cn=Users,dc=…, using cn rather than ou), but the SonicWall knows about and deals with these, so they can be entered in the simpler URL format.

Ordering is not critical, but since they are searched in the given order it is most efficient to place the most commonly used trees first in each list. If referrals between multiple LDAP servers are to be used, then the trees are best ordered with those on the primary server first, and the rest in the same order that they will be referred.

* 
NOTE: When working with AD, to determine the location of a user in the directory for the User tree for login to server field, the directory can be searched manually from the Active Directory Users and Settings control panel applet on the server, or a directory search utility such as queryad.vbs in the Windows NT/2000/XP Resource Kit can be run from any PC in the domain.
Auto-configure – This causes the SonicWall to auto-configure the Trees containing users and Trees containing user groups fields by scanning through the directory/directories looking for all trees that contain user objects. To use auto-configure, first enter a value in the User tree for login to server field (unless anonymous login is set), and then click the Auto-configure button to bring up the Auto Configure dialog:

a)
Enter the desired domain in the Domain to search field.
b)
Select one of the following:
Append to existing trees – Appends newly located trees to the current configuration.
Replace existing trees – Starts from scratch removing all currently configured trees first.
c)
Click OK.

The auto-configuration process may also locate trees that are not needed for user login. You can manually remove these entries.

If using multiple LDAP/AD servers with referrals, this process can be repeated for each, replacing the Domain to search value accordingly and selecting Append to existing trees on each subsequent run.

8
On the Referrals tab, configure the following fields:

Allow referrals – Select this option any time that user information is located on an LDAP server other than the configured primary one.
Allow continuation references during user authentication – Select this option any time that individual directory trees have been manually configured to span multiple LDAP servers.
Allow continuation references during directory auto-configuration – Select this option to allow the trees to be read from multiple LDAP servers in a single operation.
Allow continuation references in domain searches – Select this option when using single-sign-on with users in multiple sub-domains having separate LDAP servers.
9
On the LDAP Users tab, configure the following fields:

Allow only users listed locally – Requires that LDAP users also be present in the SonicWall local user database for logins to be allowed.
User group membership can be set locally by duplicating LDAP user names – Allows for group membership (and privileges) to be determined by the intersection of local user and LDAP user configurations.
Default LDAP User Group – A default group on the SonicWall to which LDAP users will belong in addition to group memberships configured on the LDAP server.
Import users – You can click this button to configure local users on the SonicWall by retrieving the user names from your LDAP server. The Import users button launches the LDAP Import Users dialog containing the list of user names available for import to the SonicWall.

Select the check box for each user that you want to import into the SonicWall, and then click Save selected.

The list of users read from the LDAP server can be quite long, and you might not want to import all of them. A Remove from list button is provided, along with several methods of selecting unwanted users.You can use these options to reduce the list to a manageable size and then select the users to import.

Having users on the SonicWall with the same name as existing LDAP users allows SonicWall user privileges to be granted upon successful LDAP authentication.

Import user groups – You can click this button to configure user groups on the SonicWall by retrieving the user group names from your LDAP server. The Import user groups button launches the LDAP Import User Groups dialog containing the list of user group names available for import to the SonicWall.

Select the check box for each group that you want to import into the SonicWall, and then click Save selected.

Having user groups on the SonicWall with the same name as existing LDAP/AD user groups allows SonicWall group memberships and privileges to be granted upon successful LDAP authentication.

Alternatively, you can manually create user groups on the LDAP/AD server with the same names as SonicWall built-in groups (such as ‘Guest Services’, ‘Content Filtering Bypass’, ‘Limited Administrators’) and assign users to these groups in the directory. This also allows SonicWall group memberships to be granted upon successful LDAP authentication.

The SonicWall appliance can retrieve group memberships efficiently in the case of Active Directory by taking advantage of its unique trait of returning a ‘memberOf’ attribute for a user.

10
On the LDAP Relay tab, configure the following fields:

The RADIUS to LDAP Relay feature is designed for use in a topology where there is a central site with an LDAP/AD server and a central SonicWall with remote satellite sites connected into it via low-end SonicWall security appliances that may not support LDAP. In that case the central SonicWall can operate as a RADIUS server for the remote SonicWalls, acting as a gateway between RADIUS and LDAP, and relaying authentication requests from them to the LDAP server.

Additionally, for remote SonicWalls running non-enhanced firmware, with this feature the central SonicWall can return legacy user privilege information to them based on user group memberships learned via LDAP. This avoids what can be very complex configuration of an external RADIUS server such as IAS for those SonicWalls.

Enable RADIUS to LDAP Relay – Enables this feature.
Allow RADIUS clients to connect via – Check the relevant checkboxes and policy rules are added to allow incoming RADIUS requests accordingly.
RADIUS shared secret – This is a shared secret common to all remote SonicWalls.
User groups for legacy VPN users – Defines the user group that corresponds to the legacy Access to VPNs privileges. When a user in this user group is authenticated, the remote SonicWall is notified to give the user the relevant privileges.
User groups for legacy VPN client users – Defines the user group that corresponds to the legacy ‘Access from VPN client with XAUTH’ privileges. When a user in this user group is authenticated, the remote SonicWall is notified to give the user the relevant privileges.
User groups for legacy L2TP users – Defines the user group that corresponds to the legacy ‘Access from L2TP VPN client’ privileges. When a user in this user group is authenticated, the remote SonicWall is notified to give the user the relevant privileges.
User groups for legacy users with Internet access – Defines the user group that corresponds to the legacy Allow Internet access (when access is restricted) privileges. When a user in this user group is authenticated, the remote SonicWall is notified to give the user the relevant privileges.
* 
NOTE: The Bypass filters and Limited management capabilities privileges are returned based on membership to user groups named Content Filtering Bypass and Limited Administrators – these are not configurable.
11
Select the Test tab to test the configured LDAP settings:

The Test LDAP Settings page allows for the configured LDAP settings to be tested by attempting authentication with specified user and password credentials. Any user group memberships and/or framed IP address configured on the LDAP/AD server for the user will be displayed.

Configuring L2TP to use LDAP for MacOS and iOS Connections

Some care must be taken when configuring devices running MacOS or Apple iOS (iPad/iPhone/iPod touch) for L2TP connections using either LDAP or RADIUS. This is because iOS devices accept the first supported authentication protocol that is proposed by the server. In SonicOS, the default authentication protocol order was changed in SonicOS beginning in releases 5.8.0.8 and 5.8.1.1. Here are the default authentication protocol orders:

Prior to 5.8.0.8 and 5.8.1.1: CHAP, PAP, MS-CHAP, MS-CHAPv2.
5.8.0.8 and 5.8.1.1 and above: MS-CHAPv2, CHAP, MS-CHAP, PAP.
* 
NOTE: Upgrades from previous firmware versions will retain the original ordering. The new ordering is set on new installations only.

This change in default authentication protocol order, combined with the iOS behavior of accepting the first supported authentication protocol will default to SonicOS and iOS devices using RADIUS authentication (because Active Directory does not support CHAP, MS-CHAP, or MS-CHAPv2).

To force L2TP connections from iOS devices to use LDAP instead of RADIUS:
1
Navigate to the VPN > L2TP Server page.
2
Click Configure.
3
Click on the PPP tab.
4
Ensure that PAP is moved to the top of the list.
5
Click OK.
* 
NOTE: The order of authentication protocols can also be changed to force L2TP connections from iOS devices to use RADIUS by moving PAP to the bottom of the list.

LDAP User Group Mirroring

LDAP User Group Mirroring provides automatic duplication of LDAP User Group configurations from an LDAP server to a SonicWall Security Appliance. Administrators can manage LDAP User Groups exclusively on the LDAP server and do not need to manually duplicate configurations on the SonicWall Security Appliance. User group configurations are periodically read from the LDAP server and copied to the SonicWall Security Appliance.

LDAP User Group names that are copied to the SonicWall Security Appliance include the domain name in the format: name@domain.com. This ensures that user group names from various domains are unique.

The following features and restrictions apply to mirrored LDAP User Groups:

You can delete LDAP User Groups only on the LDAP server. They cannot delete LDAP User Groups on the SonicWall Security Appliance. When a user group is deleted on the LDAP server, its mirrored group on the SonicWall Security Appliance is also automatically deleted.
You can edit LDAP User Group names (and their comment boxes) only on the LDAP server. They cannot edit the LDAP User Group name or its comment box on the SonicWall Security Appliance. The comment box displays “Mirrored from LDAP” on the SonicWall Security Appliance.
You can add users as members to an LDAP User Group on the SonicWall Security Appliance.
You cannot add groups to other groups on the SonicWall Security Appliance. Member groups can only be configured on the LDAP server.
You can configure things such as VPNs, SSL VPNs, CFS policies, and ISP policies for LDAP User Groups on the SonicWall Security Appliance, when they are configurable under configuration pages such as Firewall > Access Rules or Firewall > App Rules.
* 
NOTE: LDAP User Groups are not deleted if they are configured in any Access Rules, App Rules, or policies.
When you disable LDAP User Group Mirroring, the mirrored user groups on the SonicWall Security Appliance are not deleted. They are changed so that they can be deleted manually by an administrator. Local mirrored user groups can be re-enabled if they have not been deleted manually.
When the system creates a mirrored group on the SonicWall Security Appliance, and the name of the mirrored group matches the name of an already existing, user-created (non-mirrored) local group, the local group is not replaced. The local group memberships are updated to reflect the group nestings that are configured on the LDAP server.
If the system finds a member group on the LDAP server with a name that is the same as one of the default member groups on the SonicWall Security Appliance, no mirrored member group is created on the SonicWall Security Appliance. The memberships in the default member group are updated to reflect the group nestings that are configured on the LDAP server.
For groups created before SonicOS 5.9, if a local member group exists on the SonicWall Security Appliance with a simple name only (no domain) and that name matches the name of a member group on the LDAP server (which includes a domain), a new local member group is created on the SonicWall Security Appliance and is given the same domain as the corresponding member group on the LDAP server. The original local member group is retained with no domain. Members of the original group are given memberships in the LDAP group, the new local mirrored group, and the original local group (with no domain).

LDAP Group Membership by Organizational Unit

The LDAP Group Membership by Organizational Unit feature provides the ability to set LDAP rules and policies for users located in certain Organizational Units (OUs) on the LDAP server.

To set a user membership by LDAP location:
1
On the SonicWall Security Appliance, go to Users > Local Groups.
2
Select the check box for Memberships are set by user's location in the LDAP directory.

3
Select one of the For users options:
at or under the given location
at the given location

After a user membership is set by LDAP location, when that user logs in, that user is made a member of any groups that match its LDAP location.

You can set any local group, including default local groups (except for the Everyone group and the Trusted Users group) as a group with members that are set by their location in the LDAP directory tree.

When a user is a member of any local groups that are configured for LDAP location:

The location of those local groups in the LDAP tree is learned.
The location of the user’s local groups is checked against all other local groups. If any other groups have the same LDAP location as that of the user’s membership groups, the user is automatically set as a member of those groups for that login session.

When a user attempts to log in, whether with success or failure, the user’s distinguished name is logged in the event log. This helps with troubleshooting if a user fails to get memberships to the expected groups. The event log messages shown Event Log Messages include the user’s LDAP distinguished name:

 

Event Log Messages

Event

Message

logstrSuccessfulUserLogin

User login from an internal zone allowed

logstrWrongUserPasswd

User login denied due to bad credentials

logstrUnknownUserLoginAttempt

User login denied due to bad credentials

logstrSuccessfulUserVpnLogin

VPN zone remote user login allowed

logstrSuccessfulUserWanLogin

WAN zone remote user login allowed

logstrWlanNoGuestPrivilege

User login denied - User has no privileges for guest service

logstrUserLoginNotUnique

User login denied - user already logged in

logstrUserLoginBarredByRule

User login denied - not allowed by policy rule

logstrUserLoginNotFoundLocal

User login denied - not found locally

logstrSSOUserLogout

User logged out - logout detected by SSO

logstrUserGrpRetrievalFail

Problem occurred during user group membership retrieval

logstrUserLoginPwdExpired

User login denied - password expired

logstrSuccessfulUserSslVpnLogin

SSLVPN zone remote user login allowed

logstrUserLoginBadEmail

User login denied - Mail Address (From/to) or SMTP Server is not configured**

logstrUserLoginFromWrongLocation

User login denied - User has no privileges for login from that location

logstrUserLoginLdapFail

User login denied - LDAP authentication failure

Configuring Single Sign-On

Configuring SSO is a process that includes installing and configuring the SonicWall SSO Agent and/or the SonicWall Terminal Services Agent (TSA), and configuring a SonicWall security appliance running SonicOS to use the SSO Agent or TSA. You can also configure SSO to use browser NTLM authentication with HTTP traffic, with or without the SSO Agent. For an introduction to SonicWall SSO, see Single Sign-On Overview.

* 
NOTE: The SonicOS SSO feature is capable of working in Virtual Machine environments, but is not officially supported. This is due to the variety of potential resource consuming environments of VM deployments, making it not practicable to effectively test and verify all possible permutations.
Topics:

Installing the SonicWall SSO Agent

The SonicWall SSO Agent is part of the SonicWall Directory Connector. The SonicWall SSO Agent must be installed on at least one, and up to eight, workstations or servers in the Windows domain that have access to the Active Directory server using VPN or IP. The SonicWall SSO Agent must have access to your SonicWall security appliance.

To install the SonicWall SSO Agent:
1
Locate the SonicWall Directory Connector executable file and double click it. It may take several seconds for the InstallShield to prepare for the installation.
2
On the Welcome page, click Next to continue. The License Agreement displays.

3
Select I accept the terms in the license agreement.
4
Click Next to continue. The Customer Information page displays.

5
Enter your name in the User Name field and your organization name in the Organization field. Select to install the application for Anyone who uses this computer (all users) or Only for me.
6
Click Next to continue. The Destination Folder page displays.

7
Select the destination folder. To:
Use the default folder, C:\Program Files\SonicWall\DCON, click Next.
Specify a custom location, click Browse, select the folder, and click Next.

The Custom Setup page displays.

8
The Installation icon displays by default next to the SonicWall SSO Agent feature. Click Next.

Optionally, you can select SonicWall NDC to enable SonicWall SSO to work with Novell users if this server has network access to the eDirectory server. For information about installing SonicWall NDC, see the SonicOS 5.6 SSO Feature Module, available on http://www.SonicWall.com/us/Support.html.

Optionally, you can also select SonicWall ADC if this server belongs to an Active Directory domain, and will be used to communicate with a SonicWall CSM appliance. For more information, see the SonicOS CF 2.6 Administrator’s Guide, available on http://www.SonicWall.com/us/Support.html.

9
Click Install to install SSO Agent. The SonicWall Directory Connection Service User Configuration page displays.

* 
NOTE: This information can be configured at a later time. To skip this step and configure it later, leave the fields blank and click Skip.
10
To configure a common service account that the SSO Agent uses to log into a specified Windows domain, enter the:
Username of an account with administrative privileges in the Username field.
Password for the account in the Password field,
Domain name of the account in the Domain Name field.
11
Click Next. The Default SSO Agent SonicWall Appliance Configuration page displays.

12
Enter the IP address of your SonicWall security appliance in the SonicWall Appliance IP field.
13
Enter the port number for the same appliance in the SonicWall Appliance Port field.
14
Enter a shared key (a hexadecimal number from 1 to 16 digits in length) in the Shared Key field.
15
Click Next to continue. The SonicWall SSO Agent installs. The status bar displays.
16
When installation is complete, optionally check the Launch SonicWall Directory Connector check box to launch the SonicWall Directory Connector.
17
Click Finish.

If you checked the Launch SonicWall Directory Connector check box, the SonicWall Directory Connector displays.

Installing the SonicWall Terminal Services Agent

Install the SonicWall TSA on one or more terminal servers on your network within the Windows domain. The SonicWall TSA must have access to your SonicWall network security appliance, and the appliance must have access to the TSA. If you have a software firewall running on the terminal server, you may need to open up the UDP port number for incoming messages from the appliance.

* 
NOTE: Additional firewall access rules may need to be added to allow terminal server users to use ping and DNS.

SonicWall TSA is available for download without charge from MySonicWall.

To install the SonicWall TSA, perform the following steps:
1
On a Windows Terminal Server system, download one of the following installation programs, depending on your computer:
SonicWall TSAInstaller32.msi (32 bit, version 3.0.28.1001 or higher)
SonicWall TSAInstaller64.msi (64 bit, version 3.0.28.1001 or higher)

You can find these on http://www.mySonicWall.com.

2
Double-click the installation program to begin installation.
3
On the Welcome page, click Next to continue.
4
The License Agreement displays. Select I agree.
5
Click Next to continue. The Select Installation Folder dialog displays.

6
Select the destination folder. To:
Use the default folder, C:\Program Files\SonicWall\SonicWall Terminal Services Agent\, click Next.
Specify a custom location, click Browse, select the folder, and click Next.

The Confirm Installation dialog displays.

7
Click Next to start the installation.
8
Wait while the SonicWall Terminal Services Agent installs. The progress bar indicates the status.
9
When installation is complete, click Close to exit the installer. The SonicWall Terminal Services Agent dialog displays.

10
You must restart your system before starting the SonicWall Terminal Services Agent. To restart:
Immediately, click Yes.
Later, click No.

Configuring the SonicWall SSO Agent

The SonicWall SSO Agent communicates with workstations using NetAPI or WMI, which both provide information about users that are logged into a workstation, including domain users, local users, and Windows services. WMI is pre-installed on Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, Windows ME, and Windows 2000. For other Windows versions, visit www.microsoft.com to download WMI. Verify that WMI or NetAPI is installed prior to configuring the SonicWall SSO Agent.

The .NET Framework 2.0 must installed prior to configuring the SonicWall SSO Agent. The .NET Framework can be downloaded from Microsoft at www.microsoft.com.

Topics:
Configuring Communication Properties of the SonicWall SSO Agent
To configure the communication properties of the SonicWall SSO Agent:
1
Launch the SonicWall Configuration Tool by:
Double-clicking the desktop shortcut.
Navigating to Start > All Programs > SonicWall > SonicWall Directory Connector > SonicWall Configuration Tool.

If the IP address for a default SonicWall security appliance was not configured, or if it was configured incorrectly, a pop up will display. Click Yes to use the default IP address (192.168.168.168) or click No to use the current configuration.

If you clicked Yes, the message Successfully restored the old configuration will display. Click OK.

If you clicked No, or if you clicked Yes but the default configuration is incorrect, the message SonicWall SSO Agent service is not running. Please check the configuration and start the service. will display. Click OK.

If the message SonicWall SSO Agent service is not running. Please check the configuration and start the service displays, the SSO Agent service will be disabled by default. To enable the service, expand the SonicWall Directory Connector Configuration Tool in the left navigation panel by clicking the + icon, highlighting the SonicWall SSO Agent underneath it, and clicking the button.

2
In the left-hand navigation panel, expand the SonicWall Directory Connector Configuration Tool by clicking the + icon.

3
Right click the SonicWall SSO Agent and select Properties.
4
From the Logging Level drop-down menu, select the level of events to be logged in the Windows Event Log. The default logging level is 1. Select one of the following levels:
Logging Level 0 - Only critical events are logged.
Logging Level 1 - Critical and significantly severe events are logged.
Logging Level 2 - All requests from the appliance are logged, using the debug level of severity.
* 
NOTE: When Logging Level 2 is selected, the SSO Agent service will terminate if the Windows event log reaches its maximum capacity.

5
In the Refresh Time field, enter the frequency, in seconds, that the SSO Agent will refresh user log in status. The default is 60 seconds.

6
From the Query Source drop-down menu, select the protocol that the SSO Agent will use to communicate with workstations, either NETAPI or WMI.

* 
NOTE: NetAPI will provide faster, though possibly slightly less accurate, performance. WMI will provide slower, though possibly more accurate, performance. With NetAPI, Windows reports the last login to the workstation whether or not the user is still logged in. This means that after a user logs out from his computer, the appliance will still show the user as logged in when NetAPI is used. If another user logs onto the same computer, then at that point the previous user is logged out from the SonicWall.

WMI is pre-installed on Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, Windows Me, and Windows 2000. Both NetAPI and WMI can be manually downloaded and installed. NetAPI and WMI provide information about users that are logged into a workstation, including domain users, local users, and Windows services.

User identification via the Domain Controller Security Log can be configured for WMI with a non-administrator domain account. Although this option does not require use of the administrator domain account, it still requires read access to the security log, which can be accomplished by configuring a non-admin account. For more information, refer to the Configuring a Non-Admin Domain Account for SSO Agent to Read Security Logs technical note in the Support > Product Documentation page on SonicWall.com.

7
In the Configuration File field, enter the path for the configuration file. The default path is:

C:\Program Files\SonicWall\DCON\SSO\CIAConfig.xml

8
Click Accept.
9
Click OK.
Adding a SonicWall Security Appliance

Use these instructions to manually add a SonicWall security appliance if you did not add one during installation, or to add additional SonicWall security appliances.

To add a SonicWall security appliance:
1
Launch the SonicWall SSO Agent Configurator.

2
Expand the SonicWall Directory Connector and SonicWall Inc. SSO Agent trees in the left column by clicking the + button.
3
Right click SonicWall Appliances.
4
Select Add.

5
Enter the appliance IP address for your SonicWall security appliance in the Appliance IP field.

6
Enter the port for the same appliance in the Appliance Port field. The default port is 2258.
7
Give your appliance a friendly name in the Friendly Name field.
8
Do one of the following:
Enter a shared key in the Shared Key field.
Click Generate Key to generate a shared key.
9
When you are finished, click OK.

Your appliance will display in the left-hand navigation panel under the SonicWall Appliances tree.

Editing Appliances in SonicWall SSO Agent

You can edit all settings on SonicWall security appliances previously added in SonicWall SSO Agent, including IP address, port number, friendly name, and shared key. To edit a SonicWall security appliance in SonicWall SSO Agent, select the appliance from the left-hand navigation panel and click the edit icon above the left-hand navigation panel. You can also click the Edit tab at the bottom of the right-hand window.

Deleting Appliances in SonicWall SSO Agent

To delete a SonicWall security appliance you previously added in SonicWall SSO Agent, select the appliance from the left-hand navigation panel and click the Delete icon above the left-hand navigation panel.

Modifying Services in SonicWall SSO Agent

You can start, stop, and pause SonicWall SSO Agent services to SonicWall security appliances:

To pause services for an appliance, select the appliance from the left-hand navigation panel and click the Pause button.
To stop services for an appliance, select the appliance from the left-hand navigation panel and click the Stop button .
To resume services, click the Start button.
* 
NOTE: You may be prompted to restart services after making configuration changes to a SonicWall security appliance in the SonicWall SSO Agent. To restart services, press the Stop button then press the Start button.

Configuring the SonicWall Terminal Services Agent

After installing the SonicWall TSA and restarting your Windows Server system, you can double-click the SonicWall TSA desktop icon created by the installer to launch it for configuration, to generate a trouble shooting report (TSR), or to see the status and version information.

Topics:
Adding a SonicWall Network Security Appliance to SonicWall TSA Settings

Perform the following steps to add a SonicWall network security appliance to the SonicWall TSA:

1
Double-click the SonicWall TSA desktop icon. The SonicWall Terminal Services Agent dialog displays.
2
On the Settings tab, type the IP address of the SonicWall network security appliance into the Appliance IP field.

3
Enter the communication port into the Appliance Port field. The default port is 2259, but a custom port can be used instead. This port must be open on the Windows Server system.
4
Enter the encryption key into the Shared Secret field.
5
Select the Show Secret check box to view the characters and verify correctness. The same shared secret must be configured on the SonicWall network security appliance.
6
In the Timeout drop-down menu, select the number of seconds that the agent will wait for a reply from the appliance before retrying the notification. The range is 5 to 10 seconds, and the default is 5 seconds.
7
In the Retries drop-down menu, select the number of times the agent will retry sending a notification to the appliance when it does not receive a reply. The range is 3 to 10 retries, and the default is 5.
8
To enable full details in log messages, select the Enable Verbose Log check box. Do this only to provide extra, detailed information in a trouble shooting report.
* 
IMPORTANT: Avoid leaving this enabled at other times because it may affect performance.
9
Click Apply. A dialog box indicates that the SonicWall TSA service has restarted with the new settings.

10
Click OK.
Creating a SonicWall TSA Trouble Shooting Report

You can create a trouble shooting report (TSR) containing all current log messages and information about the agent, driver, and system settings to examine or to send to SonicWall Technical Support for assistance.

To create a TSR for the SonicWall TSA:
1
Double-click the SonicWall TSA desktop icon. The SonicWall Terminal Services Agent dialog displays.
2
Click the Reports tab.

3
To generate the TSR and automatically email it to SonicWall Technical Support, click Send.
4
To generate the TSR and examine it in your default text editor, click View.
5
To generate the TSR and save it as a text file, click Save As.
6
When finished, click Close.
Viewing SonicWall TSA Status and Version
To display the current status of the SonicWall TSA service on your Windows Server system, or to view the version number of the SonicWall TSA:
1
Double-click the SonicWall TSA desktop icon. The SonicWall Terminal Services Agent dialog displays.
2
Click the About tab.

3
Click Close.

Configuring Your SonicWall Security Appliance for SonicWall SSO Agent

To use single sign-on, your SonicWall security appliance must be configured to use either SonicWall SSO Agent or Browser NTLM authentication only as the SSO method. SonicWall SSO Agent is also the correct method to select when configuring the appliance to use the SonicWall Terminal Services Agent.

You can configure up to eight SSO agents; it is recommended that each be configured on its own dedicated, high-performance PC in your network.

* 
NOTE: When using NetAPI or WMI, one SSO agent can support up to approximately 2500 users.When configured to read from domain controller security logs, one SSO agent can support a much larger number of users identified via that mechanism, potentially 50,000+ users. The actual number supported in either case depends on:
The performance level of the hardware that the SSO agent is running on,
How it is configured on the firewall,
Other network-dependent factors.
To configure your SonicWall security appliance to use a SonicWall SSO Agent:
1
Log in to your SonicWall security appliance and navigate to Users > Settings.
2
In the Single-sign-on method drop-down menu, select SonicWall SSO Agent. Use this choice to add and configure a TSA as well as an SSO Agent for the SSO method.

3
Click Configure SSO.The Authentication Agent Settings page displays, showing any Authentication Agents already configured. The green LED next to the Agent’s IP address indicates that the agent is currently up and running. A red LED would indicate that the agent is down. A grey LED shows that the agent is disabled. The LEDs are dynamically updated using AJAX.

4
On the Authentication Agent Settings page, click the Add button to add an agent. The page is updated to display a new row in the table at the top, and two new tabs and their input fields in the lower half of the page.

5
Enter the following information in the Settings tab:
In the Host Name or IP Address field, enter the name or IP address of the workstation on which SonicWall SSO Agent is installed.

As you type in values for the fields, the row at the top is updated in red to highlight the new information.

In the Port field, enter the port number of the workstation on which SonicWall SSO Agent is installed. The default port is 2258. Note that agents at different IP addresses can have the same port number.
In the Shared Key field, enter the shared key that you created or generated in the SonicWall SSO Agent. The shared key must match exactly. Re-enter the shared key in the Confirm Shared Key field.
In the Timeout (seconds) field, enter a number of seconds before the authentication attempt times out. This field is automatically populated with the default of 10 seconds.
In the Retries field, enter the number of authentication attempts.
6
Click the Advanced tab in the lower half of the page.
In the Maximum requests to send at a time field, enter the maximum number of requests to send from the appliance to the agent at one time. The default is 32.

The agent processes multiple requests concurrently, spawning a separate thread in the agent PC to handle each. Sending too many requests at a time can overload the PC. On the other hand, if the number of requests to be sent from the appliance exceeds the maximum, then some requests will wait on an internal “ring buffer” queue. Too many requests waiting could lead to slow response times in Single Sign On authentication. For more information, see Tuning Single Sign-On Advanced Settings.

7
Click the General Settings tab under Authentication Agent Settings to configure the following options:
Select the Enable SSO agent authentication check box to use the SSO Agent for user authentication.
Select the Try next agent on getting no name from NetAPI/WMI check box to force a retry of the authentication via a different SSO agent if there is no response or error from the first agent. This only affects agents using NetAPI/WMI.
Select the Don't block user traffic while waiting for SSO check box to use the default policy while the user is being identified. This prevents browsing delays.
8
Click the Users tab. The User Settings page displays.

9
Select the check box next to Allow only users listed locally to allow only users listed locally on the appliance to be authenticated.
10
Select the check box next to Simple user names in local database to use simple user names. When selected, the domain component of a user name will be ignored. User names returned from the authentication agent typically include a domain component, for example, domain1/user1. If this box is not checked, user names in the local database must match exactly the full names returned from the agent, including the domain component.
11
Select the check box next to Allow limited access for non-domain users to allow limited access to users who are logged in to a computer but not into a domain. These users will not be given membership in the Trusted Users user group, even when set locally, and so will not get any access set for Trusted Users. They are identified in logs as computer-name/user-name. When using the local user database to authenticate users, and the Simple user names in local database option is disabled, user names must be configured in the local database using the full computer-name/user-name identification.
12
If your network includes non-Windows devices or Windows computers with personal firewalls running, select the radio button for either NetAPI or WMI depending on which is configured for the SSO Agent. This causes the SonicWall network security appliance to probe for a response on the NetAPI/WMI port before requesting that the SSO Agent identify a user. If no response occurs, these devices will fail SSO immediately. Such devices do not respond to, or may block, the Windows networking messages used by the SSO Agent to identify a user.
13
In the Probe timeout field, enter the number of seconds that the firewall should wait for a response from the agent on the NetAPI/WMI port. The probe is considered failed after this period. The default is 5 seconds.
14
To enable probing on the NetAPI/WMI port without aborting the SSO attempt if the probes fail, select the Probe test mode check box. Probe test mode is used to ensure that the probes do not cause failures where SSO could have worked if they were not used. If probe failures are reported when SSO is working, then either the probe timeout is too short or something in the network may be blocking them. For example, if you have an Access Control List set on a router in your network to allow NetAPI from the agent’s IP address only, that ACL will block the probes to the NetAPI port from the appliance.

Probe test mode is useful for initial SSO deployment and troubleshooting. When Probe test mode is enabled, you can analyze the behavior by:

Checking the agent statistics for probe failures
Monitoring the console port for warnings that probes failed when SSO worked; these messages indicate the host address

If the statistics show 100% probe failures, then something is wrong in the network. If they show intermittent failures, you can try varying the Probe timeout setting to see if it helps.

15
To use LDAP to retrieve user information, select the Use LDAP to retrieve user group information radio button. Click Configure to configure the LDAP settings. The LDAP Configuration page displays. For configuration information for this page, refer to Advanced LDAP Configuration.
16
To use locally configured user group settings, select the Local configuration radio button.
17
In the Polling rate (minutes) field, enter a polling interval, in minutes. The security appliance will poll the workstation running SSO Agent once every interval to verify that users are still logged on. The default is 5.
18
In the Hold time after (minutes) field, enter a time, in minutes, that the security appliance will wait before trying again to identify traffic after an initial failure to do so. This feature rate-limits requests to the agent. The default is 1.
19
To populate the User names used by Windows services list, click the Add button. The Service User name dialog displays.

The purpose of this list is to distinguish the login names used by Windows services from real user logins. When the SSO agent queries Windows to find the user logged into a computer, Windows actually returns a list of user accounts that are/have been logged in to the computer and does not distinguish user logins from service logins, hence giving the SSO agent no way to determine that a login name belongs to a service. This may result in the SSO agent incorrectly reporting a service name instead of the actual user name.

You can enter up to 64 login names here that may be used by services on end-user computers. The SSO agent will ignore any logins using these names.

If, when using Single Sign On, you see unexpected user names shown on the Users > Status page, or logs of user login or user login failure with unexpected user names, those may be due to Windows service logins and those user names should be configured here so that the SSO agent will know to ignore them.

In cases where there are multiple SonicWall appliances communicating with an SSO agent, the list of service account names should be configured on only one of them. The effect of configuring multiple lists on different appliances is undefined.

To edit a service account name, select the name, click Edit, make the desired changes in the Service User name dialog box, and then click OK.

To remove service account names, select one or more names and then click Remove.

20
Enter the service login name (the simple name only, without the domain or PC name) into the Enter the name of a user account used by a Windows service field.
21
Click OK.
22
Click on the Enforcement tab if you want to either trigger SSO on traffic from a particular zone, or bypass SSO for traffic from non-user devices such as internal proxy web servers or IP phones.

23
Under Per-Zone SSO Enforcement, select the checkboxes for any zones on which you want to trigger SSO to identify users when traffic is sent. If SSO is already required on a zone by Application Control or other policies, those checkboxes are pre-selected and cannot be cleared. If Guest Services is enabled on a zone, SSO cannot be enforced and you cannot select the check box.

These per-zone SSO enforcement settings are useful for identifying and tracking users in event logging and App Flow Monitor visualizations, even when SSO is not otherwise triggered by content filtering, IPS, or Application Control policies, or by firewall access rules requiring user authentication.

On zones where security services policies or firewall access rules are set to require user authentication, SSO will always be initiated for the affected traffic and it is not necessary to also enable SSO enforcement here.

24
To bypass SSO for traffic from certain devices or locations and apply the default content filtering policy to the traffic, select the appropriate address object or address group from the first drop-down menu under SSO Bypass. To bypass SSO for certain services or types of traffic, select the service from the second drop-down menu.

The first setting is used where traffic that would be subject to security services screening can emanate from a device other than a user's workstation (such as an internal proxy Web server or IP phone). It prevents the SonicWall from attempting to identify such a device as a network user in order to select the content filtering policy to apply. The default content filtering policy will be used for all traffic from the selected IP addresses.

The second setting is appropriate for user traffic that does not need to be authenticated, and triggering SSO might cause an unacceptable delay for the service.

SSO bypass settings do not apply when SSO is triggered by firewall access rules requiring user authentication. To configure this type of SSO bypass, add access rules that do not require user authentication for the affected traffic.

* 
NOTE: By default, Linux and Mac users who are not authenticated by SSO via Samba are assigned the default content filtering policy. To redirect all such users who are not authenticated by SSO to manually enter their credentials, create an access rule from the WAN zone to the LAN zone for the HTTP service with Users Allowed set to All. Then configure the appropriate CFS policy for the users or user groups.
25
Click the Terminal Services tab. The Terminal Services Agent Settings page displays.
26
Within this page, on the Terminal Services Agents tab, click the Add button. The page is updated to display a new row in the table at the top, and new input fields in the lower half of the page.

For existing agents, a green LED-style icon next to an agent indicates that the agent is up and running. A red LED icon indicates that the agent is down. A yellow LED icon means that the TSA is idle and the appliance has not heard anything from it for 5 minutes or more. Because TSA sends notifications to the appliance rather than the appliance sending requests to the agent, a lack of notifications could mean that there is a problem, but more likely means simply that no user on the terminal server is currently doing anything.

27
In the Host Name or IP Address(es) field, enter the name or IP address of the terminal server on which SonicWall TSA is installed. If the terminal server is multi-homed (has multiple IP addresses) and you are identifying the host by IP address rather than DNS name, enter all the IP addresses as a comma-separated list.

As you type in values for the fields, the row at the top is updated in red to highlight the new information.

28
In the Port field, enter the port number of the workstation on which SonicWall TSA is installed. The default port is 2259. Note that agents at different IP addresses can have the same port number.
29
In the Shared Key field, enter the shared key that you created or generated in the SonicWall TSA. The shared key must match exactly. Re-enter the shared key in the Confirm Shared Key field.
30
Click the General Settings tab.
31
The Allow traffic from services on the terminal server to bypass user authentication in access rules check box is selected by default. This allows traffic such as Windows updates or anti-virus updates, which is not associated with any user login session, to pass without authentication. If you clear this check box, traffic from services can be blocked if firewall access rules require user authentication. In this case, you can add rules to allow access for “All” to the services traffic destinations, or configure the destinations as HTTP URLs that can bypass user authentication in access rules.
32
Click the NTLM tab. The NTLM Browser Authentication page displays. NTLM authentication is supported by Mozilla-based browsers and can be used as a supplement to identifying users via an SSO agent or, with some limitations, on its own without the agent. The SonicWall appliance interacts directly with the browser to authenticate the user. Users logged in with domain credentials are authenticated transparently; in other cases the user may need to enter credentials to log in to the appliance, but should only need to do so once as the credentials are saved.

Consult the tooltips on this tab for additional details, and see How Does Browser NTLM Authentication Work? for more information.

33
Select one of the following choices from the Use NTLM to authenticate HTTP traffic drop-down menu:
Never – Never use NTML authentication.
Before attempting SSO via the agent – Try to authenticate users with NTLM before using the SonicWall SSO agent.
Only if SSO via the agent fails – Try to authenticate users via the SSO agent first; if that fails, try using NTLM.
34
For Authentication domain, do one of the following:
Enter the full DNS name of the SonicWall appliance’s domain in the form “www.somedomain.com”
Select the Use the domain from the LDAP configuration check box to use the same domain that is used in the LDAP configuration.

Fully transparent authentication can only occur if the browser sees the appliance domain as the local domain.

35
For Redirect the browser to this appliance via, select one of the following options to determine how a user’s browser is initially redirected to the SonicWall appliance’s own Web server:
The interface IP address – Select this to redirect the browser to the IP address of the appliance Web server interface.
Its domain name from a reverse DNS lookup of the interface IP address – Enables the Show Reverse DNS Cache button at the bottom of the window; when clicked, a popup displays the appliance Web server’s Interface, IP Address, DNS Name, and TTL in seconds. Click the button to verify the domain name (DNS name) being used for redirecting the user’s browser.
Its domain name – Type in the Web server domain name to which the user’s browser should be redirected.
36
Enter a number of retries in the Maximum retries to allow on authentication failure.
37
To detect when users log out, select the polling method to be used by the appliance for Windows, Linux, and Macintosh users in the On the poll timer, for users authenticated user via NTLM options. Select the radio button for one of the following methods for users on each type of computer:
Poll via the SSO agent – If you are using an SSO Agent in your network, select this to use it to poll users; for users authenticated via NTLM, the user name that the agent learns must match the name used for the NTLM authentication, or the login session will be terminated. You may want to select a different polling method for Linux or Mac users, as those systems do not support the Windows networking requests used by the SSO agent.
Re-authenticate via NTLM – This method is transparent to the user if the browser is configured to store the domain credentials, or the user instructed the browser to save the credentials.
Don’t re-authenticate – If you select this option, logout will not be detected other than via the inactivity timeout.
38
If you are using older legacy servers that require legacy LAN Manager components to be included in NTLM messages, select the Forward legacy LanMan in NTLM check box. This may cause authentication to fail in newer Windows servers that don’t allow LanMan in NTLM by default because it is not secure.
39
If you have multiple agents configured, select the SSO agent or TSA to test from the Select agent to test drop-down list. The drop-down list includes SSO agents at the top, and TSA’s at the end under the heading --Terminal Server Agents--.
40
Select the Check agent connectivity radio button and then click the Test button. This will test communication with the authentication agent. If the SonicWall security appliance can connect to the SSO agent, you will see the message Agent is ready. If testing a TSA, the Test Status field displays the message, and the version and server IP address are displayed in the Information returned from the agent field.
41
For SSO agents only, select the Check user radio button, enter the IP address of a workstation in the Workstation IP address field, then click Test. This will test if the SSO agent is properly configured to identify the user logged into a workstation.
* 
TIP: If you receive the messages Agent is not responding or Configuration error, check your settings and perform these tests again.
42
When you are finished with all Authentication Agent configuration, click OK.

Configuring Your SonicWall Appliance for Browser NTLM Authentication

To use single sign-on, your SonicWall security appliance must be configured to use either SonicWall SSO Agent or Browser NTLM authentication only as the SSO method.

Topics:
Configuring Browser NTLM Authentication

The following procedure describes how to configure your SonicWall security appliance to use Browser NTLM authentication only. Perform the following steps:

1
Log in to your SonicWall security appliance and navigate to Users > Settings.

In the Single-sign-on method drop-down menu, select Browser NTLM authentication only.

2
Click Configure. The SSO Agent Configuration dialog displays.
3
Click the Settings tab. Configuration on the Settings tab is the same as the configuration for the NTLM tab when SonicWall SSO Agent is selected as the Single-sign-on method. Refer to Step 32 in the procedure in Configuring Your SonicWall Security Appliance for SonicWall SSO Agent for detailed configuration instructions for this page.
4
Click the Users tab. The User Settings dialog displays.

5
Check the box next to Allow only users listed locally to allow only users listed locally on the appliance to be authenticated.
6
Check the box next to Simple user names in local database to use simple user names. When selected, the domain component of a user name will be ignored. User names returned from the authentication agent typically include a domain component, for example, domain1/user1. If this box is not checked, user names in the local database must match exactly the full names returned from the agent, including the domain component.
7
To use LDAP to retrieve user information, select the Use LDAP to retrieve user group information radio button. Click Configure to configure the LDAP settings. The LDAP Configuration page displays. For configuration information for this page, refer to Advanced LDAP Configuration.
8
To use locally configured user group settings, select the Local configuration radio button.
9
In the Polling rate (minutes) field, enter a polling interval, in minutes. The security appliance will poll the workstation running SSO Agent once every interval to verify that users are still logged on. The default is 1.
10
Configuration on the Enforcement, Terminal Services, and Test tabs is the same as for those tabs when SonicWall SSO Agent is selected as the Single-sign-on method. Refer to the procedure in Configuring Your SonicWall Security Appliance for SonicWall SSO Agent for detailed configuration instructions for these pages.
11
When you are finished with configuration on all tabs, click OK.
Configuring RADIUS for Use With NTLM

When LDAP is selected in the Authentication method for login field, RADIUS configuration is still required when using NTLM authentication. NTLM authentication requires MSCHAP, which is provided by RADIUS but not by LDAP.

The Configure button next to RADIUS may also be required for CHAP/NTLM is enabled when LDAP authentication is selected on the Users > Settings page.

If LDAP is configured, then it will be used for user group membership lookups after a user’s credentials provided by NTLM have been authenticated via RADIUS. Thus, when using NTLM it is not necessary to configure RADIUS to return user group membership information (which can be very complex to do with some RADIUS servers, such as IAS).

* 
NOTE: Windows 7 and Vista machines require additional configuration to use RADIUS authentication with browser NTLM authentication via Internet Explorer. See Configuring NTLMv2 Session Security on Windows.

To configure RADIUS settings, click the Configure button and follow the instructions in the Configuring RADIUS Authentication.

Configuring NTLMv2 Session Security on Windows

In Microsoft Windows 7 and Vista, Internet Explorer uses the NTLMv2 variant of NTLM by default. The NTLMv2 variant cannot be authenticated via RADIUS in the same way as NTLM. To use browser NTLM authentication as the SSO method with these versions of Windows, the Windows machines must be configured to use NTLMv2 Session Security instead of NTLMv2. NTLMv2 Session Security is a variant that is designed to be compatible with RADIUS/MSCHAPv2. This configuration is performed using Windows Group Policy.

To configure a Windows 7 or Vista machine to use NTLMv2 Session Security:
1
To open Windows Group Policy, open the Control Panel and select Administrative Tools.
2
Select Local Security Policy to open the Local Security Policy window.
3
Expand Local Policies and click on Security Options.

4
Edit the Network Security: LAN Manager authentication level setting and select one of the following:
Send NTLM response only
Send LM & NTLM - use NTLMv2 session security if negotiated
5
To prevent the above setting from enabling NTLM more generally, set one or both of the following:
Network Security: Restrict NTLM: NTLM authentication in this domain to Deny all.
Network Security: Restrict NTLM: Outgoing NTLM traffic to remote servers to Deny all.
6
Then, add the SonicWall appliance domain name or IP address in one or both of the following settings:
Network Security: Restrict NTLM: Add remote server exceptions for NTLM authentication
Network Security: Restrict NTLM: Add server exceptions in this domain

Configuring RADIUS Accounting for SSO

RADIUS accounting for SSO is configured on the Users > Settings page, which has buttons for configuring RADIUS, SSO, and LDAP.

To configure RADIUS accounting for SSO:
1
Go to the Users > Settings page.

2
Click the Configure SSO button. The SSO Authentication Configuration dialog appears.
3
Under the SSO Agents tab, click the General Settings tab.

4
Select the Enable SSO agent authentication option.
5
Click the RADIUS Accounting tab.

6
To enable RADIUS accounting for SSO, select the Enable SSO by RADIUS accounting option.
7
In the Port number box, enter the UDP port number on which to listen for RADIUS accounting messages.
8
To add a new RADIUS client, click the Add button. The Settings, RADIUS, and Forwarding tabs appear in the lower half of the screen.

You can repeat these steps for each RADIUS accounting client that you want to add. Each RADIUS accounting client that you add is listed in the RADIUS Accounting Single-Sign-On panel.

The Status column shows the current status for each RADIUS accounting client listed
in the panel as follows:

Green—the client is active
Yellow—the client is idle
9
Under the Settings tab, in the Client host name or IP address box, enter the name or the IP address for the RADIUS client host.
10
In the Shared Secret box and the Confirm Secret box, enter your shared secret for the client.

11
Under the RADIUS tab, from the User-Name attribute format drop-down menu, select the format for the user name login.
12
If you want it, select the Log user out if no accounting interim updates are received option.

If you select Other as the User-Name attribute format, this panel shows two additional fields:

Format
Components

a
In the Format field, you enter a limited scanf-style string.

To specify a non-standard format, enter the format in the Format box as a scanf-style string, with either a "%s" or "%[...]" directive for each component.

In the Format field, you must tell the appliance what the network access device (NAS) will be sending in the User-Name attribute. This format is not specified by the RADIUS Accounting RFC. Devices are not constrained as to what they can send in this attribute. So, its content can be very variable. What you set here specifies how the appliance must decode the User-Name attribute to extract the user name, domain, and/or DN. There are some pre-defined formats for the common cases, but if those do not match what your network access server sends, then you must select Other as the User-Name attribute format and enter a customized format.

When you select Other, these fields are set to the format string and components of the previously selected format. So, first select the pre-defined format that most closely matches what your network access server sends. Then, change to Other, and that will give you a good starting point for entering your customized format.

b
From the Component drop-down menu, you select one of the following items:
Not used
User-Name
Domain
DN

The components that you enter as a limited scanf-style string in the Format field consist of one or more of the following items:

User-Name
Domain
Fully qualified distinguished name (DN)
* 
NOTE: You can double click in the Components box to display the Tooltip box with instructions on how to enter the scanf-style format.
13
Click the Forwarding tab to enter up to four RADIUS accounting servers.

14
Enter the IP addresses, ports, and shared secrets for the RADIUS accounting servers you want the client to forward messages to.
15
In the Timeout field and Retries field, enter the timeout period in seconds and the number of retries.

To determine which users have logged out, the SonicWall network security appliance polls the SSO Agent by sending requests to multiple logged-in users in a single request message to the SSO Agent. To configure the number of user requests the firewall can send in a single request message to the SSO Agent:

16
Click the SSO Agents tab.
17
Click the Add button. The SSO Authentication Configuration dialog appears.

18
Click the Advanced tab.
19
In the Maximum requests to send at a time field, enter the maximum number of user requests the firewall can send to the SSO agent in a single request message.
20
Click OK.

Advanced LDAP Configuration

If you selected Use LDAP to retrieve user group information on the Users tab in Step 15 of Configuring Your SonicWall Security Appliance for SonicWall SSO Agent, you must configure your LDAP settings.

To configure LDAP settings:
1
On the Users tab in the SSO Configure window, click the Configure button next to the Use LDAP to retrieve user group information option. The Settings tab displays.

2
In the Name or IP address field, enter the name or IP address of your LDAP server.
3
In the Port Number field, enter the port number of your LDAP server. The default LDAP ports are:
Default LDAP port – 389
Default LDAP over TLS port – 636
4
In the Server timeout (seconds) field, enter a number of seconds the SonicWall security appliance will wait for a response from the LDAP server before the attempt times out. Allowable values are 1 to 99999. The default is 10 seconds.
5
In the Overall operation timeout (minutes) field, enter a number of minutes the SonicWall security appliance will spend on any automatic operation before timing out. Allowable values are 1 to 99999. The default is 5 minutes.
6
Select login method from the radio buttons:
Anonymous login – to log in anonymously. Some LDAP servers allow for the tree to be accessed anonymously. If your server supports this (MS AD generally does not), you may select this option.
Give login name / location in tree – to access the tree with the login name.
Give bind distinguished name – to access the tree with the distinguished name.
7
To log in with a user’s name and password, enter the user’s name in the Login user name field and the password in the Login password field. The login name will automatically be presented to the LDAP server in full ‘dn’ notation.
* 
NOTE: Use the user’s name in the Login user name field, not a username or login ID. For example, John Doe would log in as John Doe, not jdoe.
8
Select the LDAP version from the Protocol version drop-down menu, either LDAP version 2 or LDAP version 3. Most implementations of LDAP, including AD, employ LDAP version 3.
9
Select the Use TLS (SSL) check box to use Transport Layer Security (SSL) to log in to the LDAP server. It is strongly recommended to use TLS to protect the username and password information that will be sent across the network. Most implementations of LDAP server, including AD, support TLS.
10
Select the Send LDAP ‘Start TLS’ request check box to allow the LDAP server to operate in TLS and non-TLS mode on the same TCP port. Some LDAP server implementations support the Start TLS directive rather than using native LDAP over TLS. This allows the LDAP server to listen on one port (normally 389) for LDAP connections, and to switch to TLS as directed by the client. AD does not use this option, and it should only be selected if required by your LDAP server.
* 
NOTE: Only check the Send LDAP ‘Start TLS’ request box if your LDAP server uses the same port number for TLS and non-TLS.
11
Select the Require valid certificate from server check box to require a valid certificate from the server. Validates the certificate presented by the server during the TLS exchange, matching the name specified above to the name on the certificate. Deselecting this default option will present an alert, but exchanges between the SonicWall security appliance and the LDAP server will still use TLS – only without issuance validation.
12
Select a local certificate from the Local certificate for TLS drop-down menu. This is optional, to be used only if the LDAP server requires a client certificate for connections. This feature is useful for LDAP server implementations that return passwords to ensure the identity of the LDAP client (AD does not return passwords). This setting is not required for AD.
13
Click Apply.
14
Click the Schema tab.

15
From the LDAP Schema drop-down menu, select one of the following LDAP schemas. Selecting any of the predefined schemas will automatically populate the fields used by that schema with their correct values. Selecting ‘user-defined’ will allow you to specify your own values – use this only if you have a specific or proprietary LDAP schema configuration.
Microsoft Active Directory
RFC2798 InetOrgPerson
RFC2307 Network Information Service
Samba SMB
Novell eDirectory
User defined
16
The Object class field defines which attribute represents the individual user account to which the next two fields apply. This will not be modifiable unless you select User defined.
17
The Login name attribute field defines which attribute is used for login authentication. This will not be modifiable unless you select User defined.
18
If the Qualified login name attribute field is not empty, it specifies an attribute of a user object that sets an alternative login name for the user in name@domain format. This may be needed with multiple domains in particular, where the simple login name may not be unique across domains. For Microsoft Active Directory, this is typically set to userPrincipalName for login using name@domain. This can also be set to mail for Active Directory and RFC2798 inetOrgPerson.
19
The User group membership attribute field contains the information in the user object of which groups it belongs to. This is memberOf in Microsoft Active Directory. The other predefined schemas store group membership information in the group object rather than the user object, and therefore do not use this field.
20
In the Additional user group ID attribute field, enter the attribute that contains the user’s primary group ID. This field is used to get primary user group information for user accounts, and works together with the Additional user group match attribute option. To enable database searches for the user group information, select the Use check box.

Windows has the concept of each user having a primary user group, which is normally Domain Users for domain users and Admin Users for administrators. However, an LDAP search for a user’s group memberships does not include that primary group in the list returned from Active Directory. Therefore, to allow setting rules and policies for the Domain Users or Admin Users groups, the appliance also needs to retrieve a user’s primary user group with a separate LDAP search.

An attribute must be used for the search, because in Active Directory the user’s primary group is not set by name as other user group memberships are. Instead, it is set in the user object by a primaryGroupID attribute that gives an ID number, that ID number being given in the user group object by a primaryGroupToken attribute.

To allow these user groups to be used on the appliance for applying group policies, after reading the user object with its user group memberships from LDAP, the appliance needs to perform an additional search for a user group with a primaryGroupToken attribute matching the user’s primaryGroupID attribute.

Use of these attributes is off by default, as there is additional time overhead in user group searches. The Use check box must be enabled to search for a user’s primary user group.

Although this is primarily for attributes of Active Directory, it can operate with any schema to allow a search for one additional user group by setting appropriate attribute values in the Additional user group ID attribute and Additional user group match attribute fields. These fields default to primaryGroupID and primaryGroupToken when Active Directory is selected.

21
The Framed IP address attribute field can be used to retrieve a static IP address that is assigned to a user in the directory. Currently it is only used for a user connecting using L2TP with the SonicWall security appliance L2TP server. In future releases, this may also be supported for the SonicWall Global VPN Client (GVC). In Active Director, the static IP address is configured on the Dial-in tab of a user’s properties.
22
The Object class field defines the type of entries that an LDAP directory may contain. A sample object class, as used by AD, would be ‘user’ or ‘group’.
23
The Member attribute field defines which attribute is used for login authentication.
24
The Additional user group match attribute field defines the attribute that contains the user group ID for the user. The Additional user group match attribute field works together with the Additional user group ID attribute field.
25
Select the Directory tab.

26
In the Primary Domain field, specify the user domain used by your LDAP implementation. For AD, this will be the Active Directory domain name, such as yourADdomain.com. Changes to this field will, optionally, automatically update the tree information in the rest of the page. This is set to mydomain.com by default for all schemas except Novell eDirectory, for which it is set to o=mydomain.
27
In the User tree for login to server field, specify the tree in which the user specified in the ‘Settings’ tab resides. For example, in AD the ‘administrator’ account’s default tree is the same as the user tree.
28
In the Trees containing users field, specify the trees where users commonly reside in the LDAP directory. One default value is provided that can be edited, a maximum of 64 DN values may be provided, and the SonicWall security appliance searches the directory until a match is found, or the list is exhausted. If you have created other user containers within your LDAP or AD directory, you should specify them here.
29
In the Trees containing user groups specify the trees where user groups commonly reside in the LDAP directory. A maximum of 32 DN values may be provided. These are only applicable when there is no user group membership attribute in the schema's user object, and are not used with AD.

The above-mentioned trees are normally given in URL format but can alternatively be specified as distinguished names (for example, myDom.com/Sales/Users could alternatively be given as the DN ou=Users,ou=Sales,dc=myDom,dc=com). The latter form will be necessary if the DN does not conform to the normal formatting rules as per that example. In Active Directory the URL corresponding to the distinguished name for a tree is displayed on the Object tab in the properties of the container at the top of the tree.

* 
NOTE: AD has some built-in containers that do not conform (for example, the DN for the top level Users container is formatted as cn=Users,dc=…, using cn rather than ou) but the SonicWall knows about and deals with these, so they can be entered in the simpler URL format.

Ordering is not critical, but since they are searched in the given order it is most efficient to place the most commonly used trees first in each list. If referrals between multiple LDAP servers are to be used, then the trees are best ordered with those on the primary server first, and the rest in the same order that they will be referred.

* 
NOTE: When working with AD, to locate the location of a user in the directory for the User tree for login to server field, the directory can be searched manually from the Active Directory Users and Settings control panel applet on the server, or a directory search utility such as queryad.vbs in the Windows NT/2000/XP Resource Kit can be run from any PC in the domain.
30
The Auto-configure button causes the SonicWall security appliance to auto-configure the Trees containing users and Trees containing user groups fields by scanning through the directory/directories looking for all trees that contain user objects. The User tree for login to server field must be set first.

Select whether to append new located trees to the current configuration or to start from scratch removing all currently configured trees first, and then click OK.

* 
NOTE: Auto-configure will quite likely locate trees that are not needed for user log in, and manually removing such entries is recommended.

If using multiple LDAP/AD servers with referrals, this process can be repeated for each, replacing the Domain to search accordingly and selecting Append to existing trees on each subsequent run.

31
Select the Referrals tab.

32
If multiple LDAP servers are in use in your network, LDAP referrals may be necessary. Select one or more of the following check boxes:
Allow referrals – Select when user information is located on an LDAP server other than the primary one.
Allow continuation references during user authentication – Select when individual directory trees span multiple LDAP servers.
Allow continuation references during directory auto-configuration – Select to read directory trees from multiple LDAP servers in the same operation.
Allow continuation references in domain searches – Select to search for sub-domains in multiple LDAP servers.
33
Select the LDAP Users tab.

34
Check the Allow only users listed locally box to require that LDAP users also be present in the SonicWall security appliance local user database for logins to be allowed.
35
Check the User group membership can be set locally by duplicating LDAP user names box to allow for group membership (and privileges) to be determined by the intersection of local user and LDAP user configurations.
36
From the Default LDAP User Group drop-down menu, select a default group on the SonicWall security appliance to which LDAP users will belong in addition to group memberships configured on the LDAP server.
* 
TIP: Group memberships (and privileges) can also be assigned simply with LDAP. By creating user groups on the LDAP/AD server with the same name as SonicWall security appliance built-in groups (such as Guest Services, Content Filtering Bypass, Limited Administrators) and assigning users to these groups in the directory, or creating user groups on the SonicWall security appliance with the same name as existing LDAP/AD user groups, SonicWall group memberships will be granted upon successful LDAP authentication.

The SonicWall security appliance can retrieve group memberships more efficiently in the case of Active Directory by taking advantage of its unique trait of returning a ‘memberOf’ attribute for a user.

37
Click the Import user groups button to import user groups from the LDAP server. The names of user groups on the LDAP server need to be duplicated on the SonicWall if they are to be used in policy rules, CFS policies, etc.
38
Select the LDAP Relay tab.

39
Select the Enable RADIUS to LDAP Relay check box to enable RADIUS to LDAP relay. The RADIUS to LDAP Relay feature is designed for use in a topology where there is a central site with an LDAP/AD server and a central SonicWall security appliance with remote satellite sites connected into it using SonicWall security appliances that may not support LDAP. In that case the central SonicWall security appliance can operate as a RADIUS server for the remote SonicWall security appliances, acting as a gateway between RADIUS and LDAP, and relaying authentication requests from them to the LDAP server.

Additionally, for remote SonicWall security appliances running non-enhanced firmware, with this feature the central SonicWall security appliance can return legacy user privilege information to them based on user group memberships learned using LDAP. This avoids what can be very complex configuration of an external RADIUS server such as IAS for those SonicWall security appliances.

40
Under Allow RADIUS clients to connect via, select the relevant checkboxes and policy rules will be added to allow incoming RADIUS requests accordingly. The options are:
Trusted Zones
WAN Zone
Public Zones
Wireless Zones
VPN Zone
41
In the RADIUS shared secret field, enter a shared secret common to all remote SonicWall security appliances.
42
In the User groups for legacy users fields, define the user groups that correspond to the legacy ‘VPN users,’ ‘VPN client users,’ ‘L2TP users’ and ‘users with Internet access’ privileges. When a user in one of the given user groups is authenticated, the remote SonicWall security appliances will be informed that the user is to be given the relevant privilege.
* 
NOTE: The Bypass filters and Limited management capabilities privileges are returned based on membership to user groups named Content Filtering Bypass and Limited Administrators, which are not configurable.
43
Select the Test tab.

The ‘Test’ page allows for the configured LDAP settings to be tested by attempting authentication with specified user and password credentials. Any user group memberships and/or framed IP address configured on the LDAP/AD server for the user will be displayed.

44
In the Username and Password fields, enter a valid LDAP login name for the LDAP server you configured.
45
Select Password authentication or CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol).
* 
NOTE: CHAP only works with a server that supports retrieving user passwords using LDAP and in some cases requires that the LDAP server to be configured to store passwords reversibly. CHAP cannot be used with Active Directory.
46
Click Test. Status and information returned from the LDAP server are displayed in the Test Status, Message from LDAP, and Returned User Attributes fields.

Tuning Single Sign-On Advanced Settings

This section provides detailed information to help you tune the advanced SSO settings on your SonicWall appliance.

Topics:
Overview

When a user first tries to send traffic through a SonicWall that is using SSO, the appliance sends a “who is this” request to SonicWall SSO Agent. The agent queries the user’s PC via Windows networking, and returns the user name to the SonicWall appliance. If the user name matches any criteria set in the policies, then the user is considered as “logged on” by the SonicWall. When users are logged into the SonicWall using SSO, the SSO feature also provides detection of logouts. To detect logouts, the appliance repeatedly polls the agent to check if each user is still logged in. This polling, along with the initial identification requests, could potentially result in a large loading on the SonicWall SSO Agent application and the PC on which it is running, especially when very large numbers of users are connecting.

The SonicWall SSO feature utilizes a rate-limiting mechanism to prevent the appliance from swamping the agent with these user requests. Both automatic calculations and a configurable setting on the appliance govern how this rate-limiting operates. The SonicWall SSO feature automatically calculates the maximum number of user requests contained in each message to the agent that can be processed in the poll period, based on recent polling response times. Also, the timeout on a multi-user request is automatically set to be long enough to reduce the likelihood of an occasional long timeout during polling. The configurable setting controls the number of requests to send to the agent at a time, and can be tuned to optimize SSO performance and prevent potential problems. This section provides a guide to choosing suitable settings.

The potential for problems resulting from overloading the agent can be reduced by running the agent on a dedicated high-performance PC, and possibly also by using multiple agents on separate PCs, in which case the load will be shared between them. The latter option also provides redundancy in case one of the agent PCs fails. The agent should run on a Windows Server PC (some older workstations could be used but changes in later Windows 2000/XP/Vista workstation releases and in service packs for the older versions added a TCP connection rate limiting feature that interferes with operation of the SSO agent).

About the Advanced Settings

The Maximum requests to send at a time setting is available on the Advanced tab of the SSO agent configuration.

This setting controls the maximum number of requests that can be sent from the appliance to the agent at the same time. The agent processes multiple requests concurrently, spawning a separate thread in the PC to handle each. Sending too many requests at a time can overload the PC on which the agent is running. If the number of requests to send exceeds the maximum, then some are placed on an internal “ring buffer” queue (see Using the Single Sign-On Statistics in the TSR and Viewing SSO Mouseover Statistics and Tooltips). Requests waiting on the ring buffer for too long could lead to slow response times in SSO authentication.

This setting works in conjunction with the automatically calculated number of user requests per message to the agent when polling to check the status of logged in users. The number of user requests per message is calculated based on recent polling response times. SonicOS adjusts this number as high as possible to minimize the number of messages that need to be sent, which reduces the load on the agent and helps reduce network traffic between the appliance and the agent. However, the number is kept low enough to allow the agent to process all of the user requests in the message within the poll period. This avoids potential problems such as timeouts and failures to quickly detect logged out users.

Viewing SSO Mouseover Statistics and Tooltips

The SSO Configuration page provides mouseover statistics about each agent, and mouseover tooltips for many fields. On the Settings tab, a green LED-style icon next to an agent indicates that the agent is up and running. A red LED icon indicates that the agent is down.

To view the statistics for a particular agent, hover your mouse pointer over the Statistics icon to the right of the SSO agent. This also works for individual TSAs on the Terminal Services tab.

To view the statistics for all SSO activity on the appliance, hover your mouse pointer over the statistics icon at the bottom of the table, in the same row as the Add button.

To close the statistics display, click close.

To clear all the displayed values, click Click to reset.

To view the tooltips available for many fields in the SSO configuration screens, hover your mouse pointer over the triangular icon to the right of the field. The tooltip will display until you move your mouse pointer away.

Using the Single Sign-On Statistics in the TSR

A rich set of SSO performance and error statistics is included in the trouble shooting report (TSR). These can be used to gauge how well SSO is performing in your installation. Download the TSR on the System > Diagnostics page and search for the title “SSO operation statistics”. The following are the counters to look at in particular:

1
Under Users currently connected, the TSR can include a list of all currently logged in local and remote users, regardless of how they were authenticated. On the System > Diagnostics page before generating the TSR, select Current Users and do one of the following:
Select Detail of Users, which displays eight to nine lines of detailed information in the TSR for each user.

When Detail of Users is selected, numerous details are provided, varying with the type of user. They include timers, privileges, management mode if managing, group memberships, CFS policies, VPN client networks, and other information. Disabling this option when there are thousands of users logged in could greatly decrease the size of the TSR file that is created, versus one that includes the detailed users list.

Clear (deselect) Detail of Users, which displays just one summary line per user. If the Current Users check box is not selected, then the users list is omitted from the TSR.

When Detail of Users is not selected, the user summary includes the IP address, user name, type of user and, for administrative users who are currently managing, their management mode. For example:

Users currently connected:

192.168.168.1: Web user admin logged in (managing in Config mode)

192.168.168.9: Auto user Administrator (SD80\Administrator) auto logged in

2
Under SSO ring buffer statistics, look at Ring buffer overflows and Maximum time spent on ring. If the latter approaches or exceeds the polling rate, or if any ring buffer overflows are shown, then requests are not being sent to the agent quickly enough. Also, if the Current requests waiting on ring is constantly increasing, that would indicate the same. This means that the Maximum requests to send at a time value should be increased to send requests faster. However, that will increase the load on the agent, and if the agent cannot handle the additional load, then problems will result, in which case it may be necessary to consider moving the agent to a more powerful PC or adding additional agents.
3
Under SSO operation statistics, look at Failed user id attempts with time outs and Failed user id attempts with other errors. These should be zero or close to it – significant failures shown here indicate a problem with the agent, possibly because it cannot keep up with the number of user authentications being attempted.
4
Also under SSO operation statistics, look at the Total users polled in periodic polling, User polling failures with time outs, and User polling failures with other errors. Seeing some timeouts and errors here is acceptable and probably to be expected, and occasional polling failures will not cause problems. However, the error rate should be low (an error rate of about 0.1% or less should be acceptable). Again, a high failure rate here would indicate a problem with the agent, as above.
5
Under SSO agent statistics, look at the Avg user ID request time and Avg poll per-user resp time. These should be in the region of a few seconds or less – something longer indicates possible problems on the network. Note, however, that errors caused by attempting to authenticate traffic from non-Windows PCs via SSO (which can take a significantly long time) can skew the Avg user ID request time value, so if this is high but Avg poll per-user resp time looks correct, that would indicate the agent is probably experiencing large numbers of errors, likely due to attempting to authenticate non-Windows devices.
6
If using multiple agents, then also under SSO agent statistics look at the error and timeout rates reported for the different agents, and also their response times. Significant differences between agents could indicate a problem specific to one agent that could be addressed by upgrading or changing settings for that agent in particular.
7
Traffic from devices other than PCs can trigger SSO identification attempts and that can cause errors and/or timeouts to get reported in these statistics. This can be avoided by configuring an address object group with the IP addresses of such devices, and doing one or both of the following:
If using Content Filtering, select that address object with the Bypass the Single Sign On process for traffic from setting on the Enforcement tab of the SSO configuration.
If access rules are set to allow only authenticated users, set separate rules for that address object with Users Allowed set to All.

For related information, see the White Listing IP Addresses to Bypass SSO and Authentication.

To identify the IP addresses concerned, look in the TSR and search for “IP addresses held from SSO attempts”. This lists SSO failures in the preceding period set by the Hold time after failure setting.

* 
NOTE: If any of the listed IP addresses are for are Mac/Linux PCs, see Accommodating Mac and Linux Users.

To limit the rate of errors due to this, you can also extend the Hold time after failure setting on the Users tab.

For information about viewing SSO statistics on the SSO configuration page, see Viewing SSO Mouseover Statistics and Tooltips.

Examining the Agent

If the above statistics indicate a possible problem with the agent, a good next step would be to run Windows Task Manager on the PC on which the agent is running and look at the CPU usage on the Performance tab, plus the CPU usage by the CIAService.exe process on the Processes tab. If the latter is using a large percentage of the CPU time and the CPU usage is spiking close to 100%, this is an indication that the agent is getting overloaded. To try to reduce the loading you can decrease the Maximum requests to send at a time setting; see Using the Single Sign-On Statistics in the TSR.

Remedies

If the settings cannot be balanced to avoid overloading the agent’s PC while still being able to send requests to the agent fast enough, then one of the following actions should be taken:

Consider reducing the polling rate configured on the Users tab by increasing the poll time. This will reduce the load on the agent, at the cost of detecting logouts less quickly. Note that in an environment with shared PCs, it is probably best to keep the poll interval as short as possible to avoid problems that could result from not detecting logouts when different users use the same PC, such as the initial traffic from the second user of a PC possibly being logged as sent by the previous user.
Move the agent to a higher-performance, dedicated PC.
Configure an additional agent or agents.

Configuring Firewall Access Rules

Enabling SonicWall SSO affects policies on the Firewall > Access Rules page of the SonicOS management interface. Rules set under Firewall > Access Rules are checked against the user group memberships returned from a SSO LDAP query, and are applied automatically.

Topics:
Automatically Generated Rules for SonicWall SSO

When a SonicWall SSO agent or TSA is configured in the SonicOS management interface, a Firewall access rule and corresponding NAT policy are created to allow the replies from the agent into the LAN. These rules use either a SonicWallSonicWall SSO Agents or SonicWall Terminal Services Agents address group object, which has a member address object for each configured agent. The member address objects are automatically added to and deleted from the group object as agents are added or deleted. The member address objects are also updated automatically as an agent’s IP address changes, including when an IP address is resolved via DNS (where an agent is given by DNS name).

If SonicWall SSO agents or TSAs are configured in different zones, the Firewall access rule and NAT policy are added to each applicable zone. The same SonicWall SSO Agents or SonicWall Terminal Services Agents address group is used in each zone.

* 
NOTE: Do not enable Guest Services in the same zone where SonicWall SSO is being used. Enabling Guest Services will disable SSO in that zone, causing users who have authenticated via SSO to lose access. Create a separate zone for Guest Services.
Accommodating Mac and Linux Users

Mac and Linux systems do not support the Windows networking requests that are used by the SonicWall SSO agent, and hence require Samba 3.5 or newer to work with SonicWall SSO.

Topics:
Using SSO on Mac and Linux With Samba

For Windows users, SonicWall SSO is used by a SonicWall appliance to automatically authenticate users in a Windows domain. It allows the users to get access through the appliance with correct filtering and policy compliance without the need to identify themselves via any additional login process after their Windows domain login.

Samba is a software package used by Linux/Unix or Mac machines to give their users access to resources in a Windows domain (via Samba’s smbclient utility) and/or to give Windows domain users access to resources on the Linux or Mac machine (via a Samba server).

A user working on a Linux PC or Mac with Samba in a Windows domain can be identified by SonicWall SSO, but it requires proper configuration of the Linux/Mac machine, the SSO Agent, and possibly some reconfiguration of the appliance. For example, the following configuration is necessary:

To use SonicWall SSO with Linux/Mac users, the SonicWall SSO Agent must be configured to use NetAPI rather than WMI to get the user login information from the user's machine.
For Samba to receive and respond to the requests from the SonicWall SSO Agent, it must be set up as a member of the domain and the Samba server must be running and properly configured to use domain authentication.

SonicWall SSO is supported by Samba 3.5 or newer.

* 
NOTE: If multiple users log into a Linux PC, access to traffic from that PC is granted based on the most recent login.
Using SSO on Mac and Linux Without Samba

Without Samba, Mac and Linux users can still get access, but will need to log in to the SonicWall appliance to do so. This can cause the following problems: