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Secure Mobile Access 12.0 Admin Guide

Management

 

User Management

Users, Groups, Communities, and Realms

Access control rules determine which resources are available for users or groups of users. Accordingly, you must define users and groups in AMC that map to users or groups stored in external user directories or in the local user authentication repository on the appliance. At a higher level, communities organize users or user groups that share common characteristics, most notably access policy and access methods, and can also be used in access control rules.

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Users and groups

A user is an individual who needs access to resources on your network, and a group is a collection of users. After you’ve created users or groups on the appliance, you can reference them in an access control rule to permit or deny access to resources.

Users and groups can be stored on an external authentication server or on the appliance in a local user authentication repository. When an external authentication server, such as LDAP or Microsoft Active Directory, is being used, you create references to existing users or groups stored in that server. These users or groups, as well as local users and groups, are referenced in access control rules to control authorization. You can even query the external directory (looking for users who share certain attributes, for example) and use the results to create a group to use in an access control rule. This is useful when you do not want to create and manage users directly on the appliance.

Creating local users and groups on the appliance is useful to allow external users to access a set of internal company resources, such as a reseller who needs access to a special order status page on an internal system. For deployments without an existing company-wide directory server in place, the local user authentication repository allows group-based policy without the need to install, configure, and maintain another server.

You can define a user or group before referencing it in an access control rule; alternatively, you can define a new user or group directly from the access control rule interface.

Communities

Communities are collections of users that determine which access methods and End Point Control agents are deployed to the members of a user population when they log in to a realm. For example, you may want to enable OnDemand for your mobile employees, but provide only Web access to your business partners. If End Point Control is enabled, communities can also be used to determine which “zones of trust” members belong to.

Realms

A realm references an authentication server and determines which access agents are provisioned to your users and what End Point Control restrictions are imposed.

Using Realms and Communities

When you set up realms and user communities, AMC enables you to specify which access agents are provisioned to members of the communities. You also have the option of classifying community members’ devices into “zones of trust.” The following illustration shows how a realm authenticates users, assigns them to communities to provision access agents and, with End Point Control enabled, assigns community members to different zones based on the trustworthiness of their computers.

If your network uses only one authentication server to store user information, then you probably need to create only one realm in AMC. If your network uses multiple authentication servers, you must create at least one realm for each of them. You can also create multiple realms in AMC that reference separate user populations in a single external repository.

Using only one authentication realm doesn’t limit your ability to create subsets of users based on their access needs or other security considerations, because realms must be associated with communities of users. A community can consist of all users in a realm or only selected users; it is used to deploy access agents and to enforce End Point Control restrictions for members of a community. For information on communities, see Configuring an SMA Appliance to Send RADIUS Accounting Records to a Firewall.

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Viewing Realms

You can view the list of configured realms, including all “building blocks” that are associated with each one: the authentication servers and communities. The communities, in turn, determine who has access using what methods, what security zone to place a device in, based on its profile, and even the appearance of WorkPlace.

To view configured realms
1
Under User Access in the left navigation pane, click Realms. The Realms page displays.

Collapsed view

The Collapsed view gives you a quick summary of each realm. Click any item to go directly to its corresponding configuration page in AMC:

All realms that are enabled appear in blue, while those in gray are disabled. Users and groups associated with a disabled realm are unable to log in. See Enabling and Disabling Realms for more details.
The Authentication server area shows the name or names of the servers that are used by a realm to verify users’ identities. Clicking on the server name displays the System Configuration > Authentication Servers page for that server.

The (optional) descriptive text you entered when creating a realm is on the right.
You can use the:
Up and Down Arrow icons to re-order the list of realms
Copy icon to create a copy of a realm to modify
Delete icon to delete a realm.
Below the server information is a list of communities associated with the realm.

Expanded view

The Expanded view expands the list of communities to graphically represent the community and its layout, configuration, and zones.

You can:

Expand or collapse all realms by clicking on the Expand all details or Collapse all details icon at the top of the page.
Expand or collapse a single realm by clicking its:
Plus Sign (+) to see more detail.
Minus Sign () to see less detail.
2
Communities allow you to group realm members based on different security needs. For a quick check of which members belong to a community, move the pointer over the community name.

3
You can access the relevant pages for:
Default style – The appearance of the WorkPlace portal is governed by a style and layout that you can configure. If you have a community of mobile device users, for example, you might want to create a more compact look and layout for it.
Access method – Lists the browser access method(s) for the community.
Security zones – Are used to allow or deny access using device profiles. For a quick check of which device profiles are used by a particular zone, move the pointer over the zone name.
4
There are a number of community-level configuration changes you can make on this page in AMC. Move the cursor over a community name:

Using the controls that appear when you are positioned over a community, you can:

Add or delete a community with the Add (+) or Delete (X) icons.
Change the order in which users are grouped by moving the community left or right with the Right (>) or Left (<) Arrow icons.
To see the session workflow, move the pointer over the community name and click the Session Flow icon.

5
Specify a default realm from the Default realm drop-down menu (at the bottom of the page), which lists all the displayed realms. The default realm is preselected in user login screens.

Default, Visible, and Hidden Realms

To authenticate a user, the appliance must know which realm the user belongs to. If only one realm is enabled, the appliance automatically uses it. However, if multiple realms are enabled, the appliance needs to know which one to use.

When users log in, they typically select the appropriate realm from a list. You can make the choice easier for them by defining a default realm in AMC (see Specifying the Default Realm for more information). If a default realm is defined, the realm selection field is automatically populated with that realm. The specific behavior of each access method is outlined in this section.

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IMPORTANT: SonicWall strongly recommends that you specify a default realm.

You can also choose which realm names are visible to users. If a realm is hidden, the user must know its name and manually type it during login. For example, you could create realms for various suppliers. If you’d prefer that they not know about one another, you could configure the realm names to be hidden. Each supplier then has to type the realm name when logging in to the appliance.

For the typical user login experience for various realm configurations, see Typical user login experience for various realm configurations.

 

Typical user login experience for various realm configurations

Realms enabled

Default realm configured?

Hidden realms configured?

User’s login experience

One

N/A

N/A

User does not need to select a realm during the login process. Access methods automatically use the one enabled realm for authentication.

Multiple

Yes

None

User selects a realm from the list. The Realm field is initially populated with the default realm.

Multiple

No

None

User selects a realm from the list. The Realm field is initially populated with the first realm (sorted alphabetically).

Multiple

Yes

Yes

User selects a realm from the list. The Realm field is initially populated with the default realm. If login requires a hidden realm, user selects Other and then types the realm name in a second field.

When users first access Secure Mobile Access WorkPlace, they are presented with one or more login pages. If only one realm is enabled, they see only the page requesting their user credentials. If multiple realms are enabled, they see a login page on which they select the appropriate realm from a drop-down menu. The default realm selected on the User Access > Realms page is displayed as the preselected realm in the drop-down menu. If there are one or more hidden realms, the login page prompts the user to type in the realm name.

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NOTE: Up to 200 realms can be defined for users to choose from. As an alternative, to avoid manual selection, WorkPlace sites can be set up with a unique realm configured for each WorkPlace site. The default number of Workplace sites is 200, but there is no limit.

After clicking Next, users authenticating with user name and password are presented with the page for entering credentials.

Specifying the Default Realm

If you specify more than one authentication realm, you must designate one as the default. To authenticate a user, the appliance must know which realm the user belongs to. If only one realm is enabled, the appliance automatically uses it. If multiple realms are enabled, the appliance needs to know which one to use. A user can select the appropriate one from a list, but the process is easier for the user if you designate a default realm in AMC. (Even if you configure only one realm, you should specify it as the default; otherwise AMC displays the warning message, There is no default realm selected, on the Realms page.)

To specify a default realm
1
From the main navigation menu, click Realms.
2
In the Default realm list (at the bottom of the AMC page), select the authentication realm that will be the default. This list shows only those realms that are enabled and configured to be displayed.

Enabling and Disabling Realms

The appliance supports the simultaneous use of multiple realms. You can control which realms are active by enabling and disabling them. When a realm is disabled, users and groups associated with that realm are unable to log in. If no authentication realm is enabled, users do not have access to the network.

To enable or disable an authentication realm
1
From the main navigation menu, click Realms to see the list of defined realms. If a realm is enabled, its indicator icon in the Enabled column is green. If a realm is disabled, the indicator is gray.
2
Click the name of the realm you want to enable or disable. This displays the Configure Realm page for that realm.
3
In the General area, select whether the Status for the realm is Enabled or Disabled.
4
Click Save.

Best Practices for Defining Realms

When defining realms, follow these best practices to simplify your users’ login experience.

Your users select a realm name when logging in, so define realm names that clearly describe the user population. For example, a realm that includes all internal employees might be named “employees,” while a realm that includes external suppliers might be named “suppliers.”

If a realm will be referenced by mobile device users, keep the name short so that all of it is visible on the mobile device. A Pocket PC device using standard text size, for example, can normally display a name that is about 30 characters long, but a smart phone cannot.

If some users will be logging in to a realm that is hidden, make sure they know the name of the realm and how to type it in (choose Other from the realm list and then type the realm name in the field).
Enable multiple realms only if necessary. If only one realm is enabled, users do not need to select a realm as part of the login process. When moving from a test to a production environment, verify that all test realms have been removed.

Configuring Realms and Communities

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Creating Realms

If you create more than one realm, you must specify one as the default.

After you create a realm and associate it with an external authentication server, you can either add one or more communities to the realm or use the preconfigured Default community. If you create and save a realm without assigning a community to it, AMC automatically assigns the Default community to the realm. See Using the Default Community and also Adding, Editing, Copying, and Deleting Objects in AMC.

To create a realm
1
Under User Access in the navigation pane, click Realms.
2
Click + New realm. The Configure Realm page appears with the General settings displayed.

3
In the Name field, type a meaningful name for the realm. If users are required to select a realm name when logging in to the VPN, make sure the name clearly describes the user population.
4
In the Description field, type a descriptive comment about the realm. This is optional, but helpful, especially if your VPN uses multiple authentication realms. The text you enter in this field is displayed in the list of realms.

5
Enable or disable this realm by selecting the appropriate Status. See Enabling and Disabling Realms for more information.
6
If you want this realm to appear in the list seen by your users (recommended in most cases), select the Display this realm checkbox.
7
From the Authentication server drop-down menu, select the realm used to verify a user’s identity. You must select a server.
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CAUTION: Setting Authentication server to None allows unauthenticated, open access to this realm and its resources. Do not do this unless you are sure this is what you intend.
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You can also click New to display the Authentication Servers > New Authentication Server page for configuring a new authentication server and referencing it in the realm. For more information, see Configuring Authentication Servers.
9
If you want to save accounting information about this realm, select the Enable accounting records checkbox. When selected, all RADIUS, syslog, and routing changes are saved.
10
Click Advanced to display the advanced settings.

11
To have users access SAML 2.0 web applications without having to reenter authentication credentials, in the SAML 2.0 federated SSO with Cloud Access Manager (CAM) section:
a
Select the Enable SAML 2.0 federated single sign on checkbox.
b
Enter an externally visible hostname that federated apps use to redirect users to the SAML identity provider in the External identity provider name field.
c
Enter the One Identity hostname in the Cloud Access Manager field.
12
Set up the appliance to use a second authentication server and create a customized Acceptable Use Policy (AUP). There are two ways to set up a second authentication server:
Chained authentication: Require users to provide more than one set of credentials. See Configuring Chained Authentication.
Enable group affinity checking: Query a secondary authentication repository. See Enabling Group Affinity Checking in a Realm for more information.
13
In the Acceptable Use Policy area, select the Users must acknowledge a message before connecting to this realm checkbox to force users to agree to an Acceptable Use Policy before being allowed to log in to the realm.

14
In the Title field, type in the title of the AUP, up to 50 characters.
15
In the Message field, type in the AUP message to which the user needs to agree, up to 64,000 characters.
16
For the Style setting, select one of these radio buttons:
Use policy (Agree/Disagree) – The use policy agreement is displayed, and the user must click the Agree button to continue connecting. If Disagree is clicked, the session is ended.
Message (Acknowledge) – The message is displayed, and the user clicks the OK button to continue connecting.
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In the Configure CAPTCHA area, check the Enable CAPTCHA checkbox to require WorkPlace users to enter CAPTCHA characters in addition to a user name and password during login. The CAPTCHA prompt is displayed on the WorkPlace login page only if CAPTCHA is enabled here.

CAPTCHAs are effective in preventing these types of malicious program attacks on password systems:

A bot that attempts to login by guessing the username/password by iterating through a dictionary of password possibilities.
A denial-of-service attack from a bot that attempts to lock out user accounts by forcing a sequence of numerous unsuccessful logins.
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NOTE: This prompt is displayed and CAPTCHA can be enabled only when the captchaCapable option is enabled in the setMicroInterrogationResult() API.

A CAPTCHA is configured at the realm level across all WorkPlace access methods and all authentication service configurations (local Auth, LDAP, Active Directory, RADIUS). The CAPTCHA consists of 6 alphanumeric characters that are not case sensitive.

Remember the following when using CAPTCHA:

In chained authentication mode, CAPTCHA is shown only for the primary authentication
CAPTCHA cannot be enabled on a Realm with token-based or certificate-based authentication. The CAPTCHA configuration section is disabled in these cases.
18
In the Group authorization area, check the Enable group affinity checking checkbox and select the server from the Server drop-down menu to perform a group affinity check against an LDAP or Active Directory server.

To add a new authentication server, click the New button to configure a new server as explained in Configuring Authentication Servers.

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Click Save.

You can add user communities to the realm (see Adding Communities to a Realm). If you create and save a realm without assigning a community to it, AMC automatically assigns the global Default community to the realm. For more information, see Using the Default Community.

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NOTE: For information on how to edit, copy, and delete communities, see Adding, Editing, Copying, and Deleting Objects in AMC.

Adding Communities to a Realm

After you create a realm, the next step is to configure one or more communities that belong to it. If all users in a realm should be treated the same, then only a single community needs to be defined. Create additional communities if you want to subdivide users; you might want to give remote employees, for example, access methods and End Point Control restrictions that differ from those for local employees. Each community defines the following:

A subset of users within a realm
Which access methods are available to those users when they log in to a realm
What restrictions (if any) are placed on their end point devices

Each realm on the appliance must reference at least one community. Using multiple communities can be an efficient way of segmenting your user population to provide specific access agents to certain users or to place End Point Control restrictions on certain types of devices used by community members.

You can either use the preconfigured Default community (see Using the Default Community) or add other communities to the realm. As your user access or security policy requirements change over time, you can add additional communities to a realm, modify the user communities referenced by a realm or delete them.

To add a community to a realm
1
After creating a realm on the General tab of the Configure Realm page, go to the Communities page by clicking the Next button. The Configure Realm page appears with the Communities tab highlighted.

2
If you want to use an existing community as is (without changing it), you may need to change the order in which the communities are listed. See Changing the Order of Communities Listed in a Realm.
3
To:
Create a new community for the realm, click New.
Edit an existing community, click its link.

The Configure Community page appears. Follow the steps described in Creating and Configuring Communities.

Creating and Configuring Communities

Creating a community involves these basic steps:

Assign members to the community
Select access methods for the community
Optionally, specify End Point Control restrictions for the community
Specify a style and layout for the WorkPlace portal.
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Assigning Members to a Community

The first step in creating a community involves specifying which users will be members. By default, a community is configured to include all users from the authentication realm to which it is assigned. However, you can configure a community to permit access to only a subset of users or user groups in a realm.

This is useful, for example, if you want to segment a realm into one community for employees and another community for business partners. You can then provide each community with the appropriate access agents or impose End Point Control restrictions if users are logging in from non-secure computers. Communities can also be referenced in access control rules to permit or deny access to your resources.

To assign members to an existing community:
1
From the main navigation menu, click Realms.
2
Within the realm, click the link for the community you want to configure. The Configure Community page appears with the Members tab displayed.
3
The Members menu specifies which users or groups belong to this community. Click Edit to select from a list of users and groups. If no users or groups are specified, the default value of this field is Any, meaning that any users from the authentication realm that references this community belong to this community.
4
In the Maximum active sessions field you can limit the number of sessions each member of this community is allowed to have active at one time. For mobile users, for example, you may want to restrict the number of sessions to 1—each session consumes one user license, and it’s impractical for a mobile user to have more than one active session. With other communities, such as employees who alternate between working from home and in the office, the number of allowed sessions should probably be higher. See How Licenses Are Calculated for more information.
5
To select which access methods are available to members of the community, click the Access Methods tab. See Selecting Access Methods for a Community for more information.
6
To restrict user access based on the security of client devices, click the End Point Control restrictions tab and specify which zones are available to users in this community. See Using End Point Control Restrictions in a Community.
7
Click Save.

Selecting Access Methods for a Community

The second step in creating a community is to determine which access methods will be available for community members to connect to the appliance and access your network resources. For information on which access methods are compatible with your users’ environments, see User Access Components.

To specify the access methods available to community members:
1
From the main navigation menu, click Realms.
2
Click the link for the community you want to configure.
3
Click the Access Methods or click Next.

4
Select the access methods community members can use with a browser to connect to resources on your network. Based on the capabilities of the user's system, the appliance activates the access agents you have selected. For information on the capabilities and system requirements of the various access agents, see User Access Components and Services.
5
If you want to provide network tunnel client access to members of a community, select a combination of the following:
In the tunnel access area, select Network tunnel client. You can use a built-in resource and shortcut if you want users to download the Connect Tunnel client and activate it from a link in WorkPlace.
For Web-based proxy access:
a)
Select Client/server proxy agent (OnDemand).
b)
Click Auto-activate from WorkPlace. This provisions or activates the Web-based OnDemand Tunnel agent to users automatically when they connect to WorkPlace.
In the Web access (HTTP) area, select:
Web proxy agent for clientless access to most types of Web-based resources for Windows clients.
Translated Web access for clientless access to Web resources that are mapped to custom ports or custom FQDNs for improved application compatibility or that use aliases to obscure internal host names. Translated Web access can be used as a fallback if the default Web proxy agent cannot run. See Web Access for information about the different types of Web access, and see Adding Resources for information about adding Web-based resources.
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NOTE: Web proxy agent will be discontinued in future releases.
6
To deploy the network tunnel clients to users, you must first make one or more IP address pools available to the community. By default, AMC makes all configured IP address pools available to a community; however, you can select specific IP address pools if necessary. See Network Tunnel Client Configuration.
7
You can require users to install a Secure Mobile Access agent or client before granting them access to network resources when they log in to WorkPlace. Selecting Require agent in order to access network provides better application compatibility for applications that need an agent: it means broader access for users, and fewer Help Desk calls for you.

When this setting is disabled, a user logging in to WorkPlace can choose not to install an agent and proceed with translated, custom port mapped or custom FQDN-mapped Web access. In this case, the user is placed in either the Default zone or a Quarantine zone, depending on how the community is configured.

8
When you have finished selecting access methods for the community, click Next to proceed to the End Point Control restrictions area, where you can restrict access to community members based on the security of their client devices. See Using End Point Control Restrictions in a Community.
9
If you don’t want to employ End Point Control for the community, click Finish.
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NOTE: If the network tunnel client option is not enabled for a particular community, users who previously had access to the Connect Tunnel client are still able to use it to access the appliance.

If the community is configured to provide only Translated Web access, terminal resources are unavailable because the client PC does not have the network transport required to access a proprietary application protocol. For information on configuring graphical terminal agents, see Managing Access Services.

Using End Point Control Restrictions in a Community

When you’re creating a community, you have the option of restricting access to users based on the security of their client devices. To do this, specify which End Point Control zones are available to users in this community. There are four types of zones—Deny, Standard, Quarantine, and Default. For more information on how to create and configure End Point Control zones, and the device profiles they use to classify connection requests, see Managing EPC with Zones and Device Profiles.

You can also set an inactivity timer, even if you don’t use End Point Control zones for a community, if your users access the appliance using the Connect Tunnel client.

To apply End Point Control restrictions for a community:
1
From the main navigation menu, click Realms.
2
Click the link for the community you want to configure, and then click the End Point Control Restrictions tab.

3
Use a Deny zone if you have a device profile that is unacceptable in your deployment. You might, for example, want to deny access to any user who has Google Desktop installed on the PC with which they are trying to connect. Select (or create) an entry in the Deny zones list and click the >> button to move it to the In use list. Deny zones are evaluated first (if there’s a match, the user is logged off).

To create a new EPC zone and then add it to the list, click the New button. For information on how to create a zone, see Defining Zones.

4
You can assign one or more End Point Control Standard zones to the community, which are used to determine which devices are authorized to access a community. If you don’t select a zone, community members are assigned to the default zone, which could limit or even deny access to resources, depending on your access policy. Select the checkbox for a zone in the Standard zones list and then click the >> button to move it to the In use list.
5
If the community references more than one zone, use Move Up and Move Down to arrange their order in the list. Zones are matched in the order they are listed, so it is important to you consider which devices are authorized in each zone. You should place your most specific zones at the top of the list.
6
If a client device does not match a zone, use the settings in the Zone fallback options area to place it into the default zone, or quarantine the device and (optionally) display a customized page with text and links. See Creating a Quarantine Zone for more information.
7
To set the inactivity timer (which is triggered when there is no keyboard or mouse activity) for community members, select a time limit (ranging from After 3 mins to After 10 hours) from the End inactive user connections list. This is a Windows-only setting that is used by the network tunnel client.
8
Click Save to complete the configuration of the community.
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NOTE: The appliance uses EPC interrogation to check for certain device profile attributes on the client and then classifies the device accordingly. If a Quarantine zone is your fallback option, and if EPC interrogation somehow fails, a device that would normally be quarantined may instead end up in the Default zone.

Configuring the Appearance of WorkPlace

Each community can be assigned a style and layout for its WorkPlace portal content pages.

A WorkPlace style determines the colors, fonts, and images used to display the pages, and a layout determines page content, how it is arranged, and how you navigate the portal. Keep in mind that the style for the login, error, and notification pages is specified when you set up a site.

To create a style and layout for a community:
1
From the main navigation menu, click Realms.
2
Click the link for the community you want to configure, and then click the WorkPlace Appearance tab.
3
Select an existing style or click Manage styles to modify or create one. For more information on configuring a WorkPlace style, see Creating or Editing a WorkPlace Style.
4
Select an existing layout or click Manage layouts to modify or create one. For more information on configuring a WorkPlace layout, see Creating or Editing a WorkPlace Layout.
5
The layout for this community is changed automatically to accommodate smaller devices; for example, the Intranet Address field (if it is part of the layout) is displayed on an advanced mobile device, but not a basic one.

If that result is not acceptable, you can specify a different layout for different classes of devices in the Small form factor devices area. A good approach when creating a community is to see how the WorkPlace portal for this community looks on a mobile device by default, and then create a new layout or modify an existing one only if you need to.

Network Tunnel Client Configuration

This section describes how to configure settings for the Connect Tunnel client and the OnDemand Tunnel agent.

IP Address Allocation

Configuring the network tunnel service to manage TCP/IP connections from the network tunnel clients requires setting up IP address pools for the allocation of IP addresses to the clients. Setting up the address pools is typically done when you configure the network tunnel service. For information on how to initially set up IP address pools, see Configuring IP Address Pools.

When you create communities that will deploy the network tunnel clients to users, you must specify which of those IP address pools are available to members of that community. By default, AMC makes all configured address pools available; however, you can select specific IP address pools if necessary.

Session Persistence

The tunnel clients automatically handle the sorts of connection interruptions that users (and especially mobile users) are familiar with, like undocking a laptop and taking it into a meeting or crossing cellular network boundaries while on the road. Users can experience these temporary interruptions and then resume their sessions without having to reauthenticate.

To allow sessions to be reestablished automatically when a user’s IP address changes (for example, when moving from the office to home), select the Allow user to resume session from multiple IP addresses checkbox when you set up EPC zones. See the steps described in Creating a Device Zone or Configuring the Default Zone for more information.

Reauthentication is, however, required if this setting is disabled or if any of the following is true:

The user’s session on the appliance has expired
The credentials provided (such as a SmartCard) do not persist during suspend/resume

Redirection Modes

When configuring the network tunnel clients, you must specify a redirection mode, which determines how client traffic is redirected to the appliance. The network tunnel service supports these redirection modes:

Split Tunnel Modes

In Split tunnel mode, traffic bound for resources defined in AMC is redirected through the tunnel, and all other traffic is routed as normal. This is less secure than redirect all mode, but also more convenient for users because it doesn’t interfere with Internet access.

To safeguard against unauthorized access to users’ computers through their Internet connections, which could potentially reach network resources by re-routing through the split tunnel, consider using End Point Control restrictions to require that users’ computers are running personal firewalls or antivirus protection.

To also give users access to local printers and file shares, select Split tunnel, with access to local network.

When the appliance is configured for one of the split tunnel modes, you can allow users to decide whether to give preference to local or remote network access. For example, let’s say you have a host resource—a Web server—with an address of 192.168.230.1. The user goes on a business trip and it turns out that the printer he or she wants to use, on a local network at a conference center, uses that same address. If you’ve selected the Allow users to indicate which split tunnel redirection mode to use on the client option in AMC, you allow the traveler to indicate a preference for local resources (in this case, the printer) when there is a network conflict. The choice is made on the client in the Connect Tunnel Properties dialog, on the Advanced tab.

Redirect All Mode

In Redirect all mode, traffic is redirected through the tunnel regardless of how resources are defined in AMC. This option provides enhanced security, blocking users from being able to access any network device during their tunnel sessions. It may also prevent Internet access, depending on your network configuration.

Redirect all mode is more secure than split tunnel redirection. After launching Connect Tunnel in redirect all mode, users can still modify the routing table, but any traffic not in accordance with the redirection list the appliance sent down to the client is immediately dropped. This prevents users from modifying the routing tables on their computers to bypass the appliance and effectively creating their own split tunnel connection back to the network. Once the routing table has been changed by the Connect Tunnel client, modifying the routing table is ineffective. For more information, see Configuring the Network Tunnel Service.

To direct all traffic through the appliance, but also give users access to local printers and file shares, select Redirect all, with access to local network. For example, if you have a community of remote employees, working from home, you could use this redirection mode for maximum security, yet still allow them to use resources on their home networks, such as a printer.

Proxy Server Redirection

Optionally, you can configure traffic bound for the Internet to be redirected through an internal proxy server when the VPN connection is active. This can be useful if you want to use an HTTP proxy server to control remote users’ access to Internet resources. This option is available only when one of the redirect all modes is enabled. For information about configuring these settings, see Configuring Tunnel Client Settings.

* 
NOTE: If you have selected a redirection mode of Redirect all, with access to local network, users will have access to local file shares and printers. You should be aware, however, that if you are using a .pac file for a remote proxy, then its redirection rules take precedence for any traffic routed through the WinINet networking library (such as Internet Explorer, Media Player, and Instant Messenger). For example, a user may expect to be able to reach a Web application on a server—because it is on the local network—but find that the request has been redirected through the remote proxy instead.
Tunnel Clients and Proxy Auto-Configuration Files (Linux Platform)

When OnDemand Tunnel or Connect Tunnel is launched on the Linux platform in an environment where a proxy server is used for outbound access to the Internet, the SMA appliance appends redirection settings to the browser's proxy auto-configuration (.pac) file. These modifications are made for the duration of the session only; the original browser settings are reinstated when the user logs out. There are some known issues involving this combination of platform and client:

In the course of a user's session, one or more prompts may appear requesting approval for changes to the browser's .pac file. In order to log in to WorkPlace and ensure proper functionality, the user must accept these .pac file modifications.
If the server .pac file is updated, the user must either connect using the OnDemand Tunnel or Connect Tunnel client to incorporate the changes or manually revert to the original proxy settings.
If a user has a Firefox browser window open when Connect Tunnel is started, the modifications that the appliance needs to make to the browser's .pac file (for properly redirecting connections) are not applied to any open browser windows.

The user must either close and then re-open Firefox or manually reload the browser's proxy settings.

UDP Tunnel Mode

A network address translator (NAT) allows multiple private network addresses to share a single, public IPv4 address. But address translation also means that client-to-client networking applications, such as VoIP and video conferencing, will not work properly: these applications need to know a user's IP address in order to establish and maintain a reliable connection.

ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) is a way to encapsulate and decapsulate packets inside of a UDP wrapper (port 4500) for traversing NATs. Using it can improve the performance of UDP-streaming applications like VoIP. For more information on ESP, see RFCs 2406 and 3948:

http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2406.txt

http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3948.txt

ESP encapsulation is the default setting for newly defined communities. UDP port 4500 must be open in network firewalls for traffic to and from the appliance's external IP addresses and virtual IP addresses when using it. If the external appliance traffic is subject to NAT, then NAT must be configured for UDP port 4500. Also, in rare cases where the network environment does not properly implement PMTU discovery (see RFC 1191), certain applications may run inefficiently or perhaps not at all when using ESP encapsulation.

When enabled, ESP use is automatically negotiated between a client and the EX Series appliance. You can choose to use it for all traffic or just UDP traffic; if ESP fails or if the client does not support it, then the SSL tunnel is automatically used instead. The User Sessions page in AMC indicates which type of tunnel is being used.

The log files also indicate which tunnel was used: log messages will indicate UDP port 4500 packets for ESP traffic and TCP port 443 packets for SSL tunnel packets.

Secure Network Detection

Secure Network Detection allows users to automatically establish a tunnel connection when attempting to login from an unsecure location. The client determines whether the device is in a secure network by comparing the client’s DNS suffixes and servers to the connected interface. Depending on this comparison, the following occurs:

 

Secure network detection

 

If connected...

If not connected...

DNS entry found

Disconnect and reconnect in SND state

Connect in SND state

DNS entry not found

Leave connected

Connect using dialer

Secure Network Detection (SND) is provided by Connect Tunnel and Mobile Connect. SND allows secure “always on, always connected” SSL VPN sessions to SMA appliances from client endpoint devices. When Secure Network Detection is enabled, the Connect Tunnel and Mobile Connect clients can detect when the user is located on a non-secure network and automatically establish a tunnel connection. The connection status is indicated by an icon on the systray:

 

Systray icons

Systray Icon

Description

Connected

Disconnected

Consider the following when using SND:

At the EPC Zone level, the Allow session to resume from multiple IP addresses checkbox must be checked for SND to work.
When enabling Secure Network Detection without Credential Caching, the user may be prompted for their credentials when they transition from secure to non-secure networks (or vice-versa) if their session has been alive longer than the maximum Credential Lifetime length under General Settings. They will also be prompted if a fallback server is used with Secure Network Detection, and Connect Tunnel detects that the primary appliance is down or unavailable (as the users session is not valid on the fallback appliance).
To workaround the fallback server issue, enable Credential Caching for the Community your users are logging in to, as well as Secure Network Detection. This securely re-sends the user’s credentials to the fallback appliance, creating their session for them again without any interaction by the user.
* 
NOTE: Credential Caching only works with username/password type authentication servers.
The team source check property in the AMC default zone will affect the appliance when EPC is disabled.
An appliance running a version prior to 10.7 with End Point Control disabled allows a user to login from multiple different IP addresses because the default value for Allow user to resume session from multiple IP addresses has changed to true (checked) as it follows the value in the default zone when End Point Control is disabled.

Post-Connection Scripting

You can configure the client to launch an executable file or script on Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux computers after a network tunnel connection has been established. For example, you could specify a Windows .bat file that executes a command script that maps network drives. You can also specify command-line options to run when the script launches.

The appliance does not provision the script to users: the client simply executes the script with any specified command-line options. The specified script must already be present on users’ computers before the client can execute it, and any specified scripts must be deployed and managed separately.

For information about configuring these settings, see Configuring Tunnel Client Settings.

Windows Tunnel Client Automatic Client Updating

For users who are running the Windows version of the Connect Tunnel or OnDemand Tunnel client (version 8.7 and later), you can ensure that they have the most recent version of the client by enabling automatic software updating.

Each time a user starts a Windows tunnel client and authenticates, the current client software version is checked against the newest version available on the appliance. If a newer version is available, the user is alerted that an update is ready for download. You can configure (on a per-community basis) what options a user has for installing client updates:

Allow the user to choose when to start the update process. The update can be deferred indefinitely; however, the user will see the update alert whenever the tunnel client is started (once per day) until the update is installed.
Make updates mandatory by either requiring them (the user must accept updates in order to access VPN resources) or enforcing them (the install process begins immediately and the user cannot cancel it).

When a user accepts a tunnel client software update by clicking Install in the software-update dialog box, the client software update is automatically downloaded and installed on the user’s computer (in the case of Connect Tunnel) or activated (in the case of OnDemand Tunnel). After the installation is complete, the tunnel client automatically restarts. Users do not need to reboot their computers after installing the update.

For information about configuring software updating, see Configuring Tunnel Client Settings.

Session Termination

By default, a tunnel client session is never terminated by the appliance once it has been established: users can leave sessions idle and return to them later without having to reauthenticate. If this is a security risk in your environment, there are a couple of ways to terminate sessions and require users to re-authenticate:

Manually: To see a list of sessions click User Sessions in the main navigation menu in AMC, and then choose one of the available termination options. For more information, see Ending User Sessions.
Automatically: You can configure the tunnel client to prompt users to re-authenticate as soon as their credentials expire. When Limit session length to credential lifetime is selected during tunnel client configuration, sessions in a given community end and require re-authentication after the length of time specified by Credential lifetime (on the Configure General Appliance Options page).

See Configuring Tunnel Client Settings for more information about configuring this option.

Configuring Tunnel Client Settings

Connect Tunnel is a client application that is installed on a user’s device, and OnDemand Tunnel is a lightweight, Web-based agent that is activated each time a user logs in to WorkPlace from an ActiveX or Java-enabled device. These two access methods differ in how they are installed or activated, but they share the same configuration settings.

This section describes how to configure settings for the tunnel clients. For a more detailed description of these settings, see Network Tunnel Client Configuration.

To configure tunnel client or agent settings:
1
On the Access Methods page for the selected community, select one or both of these access methods:
Network tunnel client (OnDemand)
Client/server proxy agent (OnDemand)
2
Click Configure in the Smart tunnel Access area. The Network Tunnel Client Settings page appears.

3
By default, any configured IP address pool is available to the selected community. To select specific IP address pools, click Edit in the IP address pools area and then select from the list of configured pools.
4
Select the Redirection mode used to route client traffic to the appliance. The network tunnel service supports several redirection modes. For a more detailed description of the supported redirection modes, see Redirection Modes.
Split tunnel: Traffic bound for resources defined in AMC is redirected through the tunnel, and all other traffic is routed as normal.
Split tunnel, with access to local network gives users access to local printers and file shares.
Redirect all: Traffic is redirected through the tunnel regardless of how resources are defined in AMC.
To direct all traffic through the appliance, but also give users access to local printers and file shares, select Redirect all, with access to local network.
5
(Optional) If the appliance is configured for one of the split tunnel modes, you can allow users to decide whether to give preference to local or remote network access by selecting Allow users to indicate which split tunnel redirection mode to use on the client. For more information and an example, see Redirection Modes.
6
(Optional) Click to expand the Connect Tunnel options section:

In the Caption for start menu and icon field, type the customized text that you want to appear for the Connect Tunnel client on the menu and beneath the Connect icon on the user’s desktop.
Create icon on desktop: Places the Connect Tunnel client icon on the desktop.
Run at system startup: Automatically runs the Connect Tunnel client when the operating system starts on the user’s computer (Windows only).
7
To use Single Sign-on, select when cached credentials should be used:
Always: Always used cached credentials if available.
At user’s discretion: Let the user decide when to used cached credentials.
Never: Prohibit users from using cached credentials.
* 
NOTE: On a Windows system, Connect Tunnel uses cached system credentials. On other systems, Connect Tunnel remembers the entered credentials and uses them on subsequent connection attempts.
8
Use one of the Software updates options to alert users when client updates are available or update their software automatically. This setting is available only when the network tunnel client is configured to provision client from Secure Mobile Access WorkPlace, and only with version 8.7 and later:
Manual—User must start updates manually.
At user's discretion—Allows users to decide when to install software updates. The update can be deferred indefinitely; however, the user will see the software-update alert when he or she starts the tunnel client (once per day) until the update is installed.
Required—User must accept updates in order to access VPN resources through the tunnel client.
Forced—Updates are required in order to connect. The update program starts, and a progress bar is visible during installation, but the user is not prompted during the process.
9
(Optional) To automatically establish a tunnel connection when a user attempts to login from an unsecure location, check the Enable secure network detection checkbox in the Secure Network Detection section. For addition information, see Secure Network Detection.
10
(Optional) By default, the client is configured to access the realm and appliance name from which the client was downloaded. However, you can override this default behavior and configure the client to access a different realm or appliance. In the Custom connection area, select the Configure client with custom realm and appliance FQDN checkbox, and then specify these options as needed:
From the Realm name list, click the name of the default realm.
In the Appliance FQDN field, type the fully qualified domain name of the default appliance.
11
(Optional) By default, a tunnel client session is never terminated by the appliance once it has been established: users can leave sessions idle and return to them later without having to reauthenticate. If you want to require users to re-authenticate after a certain period of time, select Limit session length to credential lifetime. This requires users to re-authenticate once the amount of time specified by Credential lifetime (on the Configure General Appliance Options page) has passed. When this option is selected, users are notified when a session is nearing the inactivity threshold and users can avert the disconnect by performing any mouse or keyboard activity.

If you need a TCP connection or consistent UDP traffic flow between the same two address/port tuples to live longer than eight hours, you must put the user in a community that has this option unchecked. Even with the Limit session length to credential lifetime checkbox unchecked, users cannot authorize new flows within the tunnel after their credentials expire.

12
(Optional) If you enabled Redirect all in the Redirection mode area, you can configure Internet traffic to be sent through an internal proxy server when the VPN connection is active. In the Proxy options area, select the Redirect Internet traffic through internal proxy server checkbox, and then select one of the proxy server options.

 
To specify a proxy auto-configuration (.pac) file, click Proxy auto-configuration file and then type the URL, preceded by the http:// protocol identifier, for the .pac file. The .pac file configures the user’s Web browser to load its proxy configuration settings from a JavaScript file rather than from information that you manually specify; the JavaScript file specifies which proxy servers can be used and can redirect specific URLs to specific proxy servers. For information about formatting .pac files, see: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_auto-confighttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proxy_auto-config
To manually specify a proxy server, click Proxy server and then type the server’s host name and port number in host:port format (for example, myhost:80). Optionally, in the Exclusion list field, you can type the host names, IP addresses, or domain names of any resources that you do not want redirected through the proxy server. When defining these resources, wild cards are valid, and multiple entries must be separated by semicolons.
13
(Optional) To launch an executable file or script after the connection has been established:
a
Click to expand the Post-connection scripts area.
b
Select the Run a post-connection script checkbox that corresponds to your operating system.
c
Specify your settings. For more information, see Secure Network Detection.

a)
In the Run this file field, type the path and name for the script file. For example:
%Program Files%\ACME\remote_access.bat
b)
(Optional) In the Command line arguments field, type any command-line arguments that you want to execute when running the script. For example:
-user=%USERNAME% -system=%OS%
c)
(Optional) In the Working directory field, type the directory in which the script will be executed. When defining the working directory, you can specify environment variables formatted as %VariableName%, where VariableName represents the actual environment variable name. For example:
%USERPROFILE%\ACME
14
In the Advanced area, Enable ESP encapsulation of tunnel network traffic is selected by default for all network traffic (for all tunnel traffic). ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) is a way to encapsulate and decapsulate packets inside of UDP packets for traversing Network Address Translators (NATs). Using it can improve the performance of applications, especially UDP-streaming applications like VoIP.

For an ESP tunnel to function, UDP port 4500 needs to be open in the firewall for traffic to and from the EX Series appliance external IP and Virtual IP addresses.

When ESP is enabled, the tunnel client tries to bring up an ESP tunnel, but falls back to a legacy SSL tunnel if there is a problem establishing the ESP tunnel. The typical reason for this failure is that UDP port 4500 is not open in the network firewall.

If you do not want to use ESP because you do not want to open UDP port 4500 in your firewall or for any reason, then clear the Enable ESP encapsulation of tunnel network traffic checkbox. To disable the default use of ESP in a community, clear the checkbox on the Realms > [your tunnel realm] > Communities > [your tunnel community] > Access Methods > Configure under Smart Tunnel Access > Advanced.

15
Click OK.
* 
NOTE:  
If users are running OnDemand Tunnel in “redirect all” mode, connections to translated Web resources fail with Page cannot be displayed errors. To work around this issue, add an A (Address) record to the internal DNS servers to assign the appliance VIP or external IP to the appliance FQDN.
When At user’s discretion is enabled for Client software updates in the Software updates area, the user sees an upgrade notification, and the Connect Tunnel client caches the user’s response for 24 hours. If the setting is then changed to Required or Forced, a user who opted to delay updating may not be prompted again until the following day because the earlier response is still cached.
If you plan to run a VB script after a connection has been established, you cannot simply enter the path and name of the .vbs script file; you must use the Windows Script Host utility to invoke it. To work around this, configure the post-connection options as follows:
Run this file: <drive>:\windows\system32\cscript.exe
Command line arguments: <Path to script>. For example:
c:\path\to\script.vbs or \\path\to\script.vbs

Leave Working directory empty.

When you specify a .pac file location, be certain that your tunnel users have access to it. You can do this by defining a resource and creating an access rule. See Creating and Managing Resource Groups and Configuring Access Control Rules.

Using the Default Community

After you create a realm, you must associate one or more communities with the realm. This is because communities are the mechanism that the appliance uses to deploy access agents and End Point Control components to users.

The easiest way to associate a community with an authentication realm is to use the global Default community that is preconfigured in AMC. The properties automatically assigned to the Default community are:

Membership in the community is set to Any, meaning all users in the authentication realm are assigned to the community.
Each member of the community is allowed a maximum of 5 active sessions.
Web-based proxy access (TCP protocol) and Web access (HTTP) methods are made available to community members.
No End Point Control restrictions are imposed on users’ computers.
* 
NOTE:  
You can modify the settings for a realm’s Default community the same as you can other communities. See Configuring an SMA Appliance to Send RADIUS Accounting Records to a Firewall.
You can also create additional communities and associate them with a realm. See Adding Communities to a Realm.

Changing the Order of Communities Listed in a Realm

When users log in to an authentication realm, the appliance looks up the community to which they belong so that access agents and EPC policy can be deployed to them. If you use only one community per realm or if you ensure that each user is assigned to only one community, then the process of logging in and receiving the appropriate access agent is straightforward.

However, if some users belong to more than one community, the order in which the communities are listed on the Communities tab of the Configure Realm page determines which community those users are assigned to. The appliance attempts to match users to communities starting at the top of the list. Users are assigned to the first community in the list that they match. The best practice is to place the most specific community at the top of the list.

To change the order of the communities for a realm
1
From the main navigation menu, click Realms.
2
Click the name of the authentication realm whose communities you want to re-order. The General tab of the Configure Realm page appears.
3
Click the Communities tab. The communities that are part of this realm will be matched in the order that is listed here.
4
Use the Move Up or Move Down links to move the selected community up or down.
5
When the communities are listed in the order you want, click Save.
* 
NOTE: The community a user is assigned to is displayed on the Secure Mobile Access WorkPlace home page (click Details in the Connection Status area).

Configuring RADIUS Accounting in a Realm

If you use a RADIUS server for collecting accounting information, you can configure a RADIUS accounting server in AMC and then enable accounting on a per-realm basis. The appliance sends RADIUS accounting messages to the server identifying user sessions, the time and duration of their connections, and their source IP addresses.

The appliance can connect to one RADIUS server at a time. If two RADIUS servers are configured in AMC, the appliance sends messages to just the primary server, and communicates with the secondary server only if there is a communication failure with the primary one.

To configure a RADIUS accounting server
1
From the main navigation menu, click Authentication Servers.
2
In the Other servers area of the page, click the Edit link next to RADIUS Accounting.
3
To enable the appliance to save RADIUS, syslog, and routing changes, select the Enable accounting records checkbox.

4
In the Primary RADIUS server field, type the IP address for the primary accounting server. In the Accounting port box, type the port number used to communicate with the server. If left blank, AMC uses the default server port (1646).
5
If you are using a second RADIUS accounting server as a backup in case communication between the appliance and the server fails, enter the server’s IP address in the Secondary RADIUS server field, and the port number in the Accounting port field.
6
In the Shared secret field, enter the shared secret that allows the appliance to communicate with the RADIUS accounting server.
7
In the Retry interval field (in the Advanced area), type the number of seconds to wait for a reply from the RADIUS server before retrying communication with the server.
8
By default, the appliance uses its appliance name (from the Configure Network Interfaces page) to identify itself to the RADIUS accounting server. However, you can use the NAS-Identifier and NAS-IP-Address boxes to have the appliance send different identity information.
9
In the Locale encoding area, do one of the following:
Choose a character set from the Selected drop-down menu. See Selected RADIUS Character Sets for a list of selected character sets.
Click Other and then type the name of a character set in the field. See Other Supported RADIUS Character Sets for a list of character sets that can be entered.
10
Click Save.

Editing, Copying and Deleting Communities

For information on how to edit, copy, and delete communities, see Adding, Editing, Copying, and Deleting Objects in AMC.

Managing Users and Groups

User and group management is an ongoing job. Although most user management is done through external user repositories (users and groups are not stored directly on the appliance, but are instead referenced), keeping the AMC list current is essential for delivering reliable access.

The users and groups defined in AMC are associated with any directories currently configured on the appliance.

Viewing Users and Groups

Users and groups configured in AMC are displayed on the Mapped Accounts and Local Accounts pages.

To view users and groups
1
On the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.

2
Select the tab for the user object you want to view:
 

This tab

Lets you

Mapped Accounts

Manage groups of users and individual users mapped to group information stored on an external authentication server.

Create new groups based on directory information.

Local Accounts

Manage users stored in a local user-authentication repository on the appliance.

3
Optionally, use the Filters settings to display only the objects you are interested in. For information about using filters, see Filters.
4
Review the data shown in the list of managed or local accounts:
The checkbox column is used to select one or more list items to delete.
The plus sign (+) column expands the display of user, group, or local account information.
The Type column displays an icon identifying whether the object is a user or group.
The Name column displays the name you assigned when creating a user, group, or local user account.
The Description column shows the text you entered when creating an account.
The Realm column displays the realm with which a user, group, or local user account is associated.
The Used column shows whether the user or group is currently in use.
5
Click a column heading to sort the list by that column.

Managing Users and Groups Mapped to External Repositories

Unless defined as members of the local user authentication store, users and groups are not stored directly on the appliance, but are instead referenced from external user directories. In most cases, you manage individual users in AMC only when you need to assign them permissions that are different from those that their group membership allows. There are two ways to form groups of users in AMC using information stored in external directories:

Use the same group names as the external directory. In most directories, similar user accounts are grouped together so they can be granted similar rights and permissions. Assuming that your directory is organized in this way, your user management on the appliance is usually centered around groups, not users. Set up the appliance to reference user groups stored in your directory, and then reference those groups in access control rules.
Query the external directory using common attributes. The results can be used to create a new group (one that is not referenced in the external directory) that can be used in access control rules. You might create a new group named “Local employees” by querying the directory for all employees living within a given set of zip codes.

For Microsoft Active Directory and LDAP directories, there are several ways to add groups (this feature is not available for adding users referenced by a RADIUS realm or in the local user store):

Manually type a distinguished name (DN)
Search the contents of the directory and select groups from a list
Build a dynamic group expression

For testing and evaluation purposes, you can also create local users on the appliance. See Managing Local User Accounts.

Topics:  

Adding Users or Groups Manually

When you create an access control rule, one of the things you do is specify the users and groups to which a given rule applies. You must add users before you can specify them in access control rules. Users can be added manually or by using the Active Directory or LDAP directory. To use a directory, click Browse to search the directory. See Adding Users or Groups by Searching a Directory for more information.

To add a user manually
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Mapped Accounts tab, and then click New. A pop-up menu displays.
3
Select Manual entry. The Add Mapped Account page appears.

4
In the Select realm drop-down menu, select the realm to which the user belongs. If the user exists in multiple realms and you want the appliance to search for any occurrence, select Any from the realm list.
5
From the User type radio buttons, select the type of account to add: Group (default) or User.
6
If you selected Group, in the Group name field type the group name exactly as it appears in the external repository. (Group names are case-sensitive.) The name depends on the type of directory to which you are mapping:
 

Directory type

What to type

LDAP

Type a distinguished name (DN). For example:

cn=Sales,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com

Active Directory

Type a common name (CN) or distinguished name (DN). A CN is easier to enter than a DN (for example, you can type Sales instead of:

cn=Sales,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com)

but the CN is not guaranteed to be a unique match. When in doubt, it’s best to use a DN.

RADIUS

Type a group name. For example, Sales.

When you specify an Active Directory or LDAP group, its sub-groups (if any) are also included. The number of nesting levels that you want to include when evaluating group membership is configured when you set up an authentication server; see Configuring LDAP with Username and Password and Configuring Active Directory with Username and Password for more information.

* 
NOTE: When using an external directory for authentication and you add a user group in AMC, you are not actually grouping users. You are merely adding the name of a user group that is defined in your external user repository.

The appliance also supports local users and groups. See Managing Local User Accounts.

7
If you selected User, for the User name, type the user name exactly as it appears in the external repository. User names are case-sensitive; Name selection explains the syntax used to define users.
 

Name selection

Directory type

What to enter

Active Directory or RADIUS

Type a user name. For example, jsmith.

LDAP

Type a distinguished name (DN). For example:

cn=jsmith,cn=Users,dc=example,dc=com
8
(Optional) In the Display name field, type the name to display in AMC pages to identify the group or user.
9
(Optional) In the Description field, type a descriptive comment about the group or user.
10
Click Save or Save and Add Another.
* 
NOTE: If you enter the name incorrectly the user will not be authorized to access any resources.

Adding Users or Groups by Searching a Directory

The most common way to add groups in AMC is to browse an external directory and add matching groups.

To add a user or group by searching a directory
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
On the Mapped Accounts tab, click New, and then select Directory search. The Search Directory page appears.

3
Select the realm you want to search (only realms that use an Active Directory, Active Directory Tree, or LDAP authentication server are available).

If you select a realm that uses an authentication server on which group checking is disabled, the Search field is not clickable and the message Group checking has been disabled for this realm is displayed. See Disabling Authorization Checks for more information.

4
If the realm you selected uses an Active Directory Tree authentication server, select the domain you want to search.
5
Define your search criteria:
In the Search directory field, type all or part of a user or group name. The default is *, which returns all records in the realm. You can use the wild card character (*) anywhere in the search string. For example, to find group names beginning with the letter j, you would type j*. Or, to find users named Mary or Marty (but not Max), you could type m*y.
To narrow your search, type the name and select Groups only or Users only from the drop-down menu. For example, you might type sn to look for a user’s surname or cn to find a common name.
To specify more detailed search criteria, click the Advanced tab; see Advanced Search Methods for details.
6
Click Search, which displays all matches in the second column.
7
Locate the objects you want to add:
Use the arrow buttons (< and >) in the lower left pane to page through the results. Use << and >> to display the first and last pages.
To view detailed information about a user or group, click its name. A detailed list of attributes appears in the right-hand pane. If a group is nested, click the sub-group to see its details:

The number of nested levels that it is possible to display is configured when you set up an authentication server; see Configuring LDAP with Username and Password and Configuring Active Directory with Username and Password for more information.

Select the checkbox to the left of any users or groups you want to add to the appliance.
8
To add selections to the appliance, click the Add Selected button. The items are added to the list on the appropriate page (Groups or Users) in alphabetical order.
9
When you’re finished, click the Close button in the upper right to close the Search Directory page.
* 
NOTE: By default, the basic search is configured to locate users and groups by querying the sAMAccountName, cn, uid, and userid attributes.

Most chained authentication deployments involve an LDAP or AD server paired with another authentication server (like RADIUS). In the unlikely event that you are using chained authentication with a combination of LDAP and AD servers, keep the following in mind:

If you are searching for users, only search results from the first LDAP or AD authentication server in the chain are displayed. The policy server, however, returns results from both servers in the chain.
The same is true when searching for groups (except if an affinity server is configured for the realm: it will be searched instead of the authentication servers).

For example, if you have a group called Accounting on both LDAP or AD servers in your chained authentication, any access control rules you create that are restricted to the Accounting group applies to group members on both servers, even though the Search Directory page shows results from just the first server in the chain.

Advanced Search Methods

If you are familiar with LDAP syntax, you can create an advanced search to further narrow the scope of your query. This is especially useful when querying a large directory. In some cases, you may also need to perform an advanced search to query a directory using a non-standard schema. To perform an advanced search, click the Advanced search tab.

The fields used to specify advanced search criteria are explained in Advanced search criteria:

 

Advanced search criteria

In this field

You

Search for value

Specify an LDAP search filter to reduce the scope of the search. Type all or part of a user or group name. The default is *, which returns all records in the realm. You can use the wild card character (*) anywhere in the search string. For example, to find group names beginning with the letter j, you would type j*. Or, to find users named Mary or Marty (but not Max), you could type m*y.

Attributes

Select an LDAP attribute. For example, you might select sn to look for a user’s surname or cn to find a common name.

Object classes

Specify the object class containing users or groups. For users, this is typically user or inetOrgPerson. For groups, this is usually group, groupOfNames, or groupOfUniqueNames.

Search base

Enter the point in the LDAP directory from which to begin searching. Usually, this is the lowest point in the directory tree that contains users or groups.

For LDAP, you might type ou=Users,o=example.com.

To search Microsoft Active Directory, you might use CN=users,DC=example,DC=corp,DC=com.

Search scope

Select the containers that you want to search:

one – Retrieves information from one level below the search base. The search base itself is not included in this scope.

sub – Retrieves information from the search base and all levels below the search base.

base – Retrieves information only from the search base. No containers below the search base are searched.

All levels below base (default) – retrieves information from all levels below the search base. The search base itself is not included in this scope.

Additional filter

Specify an LDAP search filter to reduce the scope of the search:

 

Syntax:

(filter=(operator(LDAP attribute=value)(..)))

Operators:

OR = |
AND = &
NOT = !

Examples:

(cn=Sandy Cane)
(!(cn=Tim Howes))
(&(objectClass=Person)(|(sn=Cane)(cn=Sandy C*)))
* 
NOTE: For more information on LDAP search filters, see RFC 2254 at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2254.txt.

The LDAP search syntax is flexible and provides several ways to accomplish the same result. For example, you might use the object class to search for all groups in a directory:

objectclass=group;groupOfNames

Alternatively, you can get the same result using a search filter:

(|(objectclass=group)(objectclass=groupOfNames))

Creating Dynamic Groups Using a Directory

If you are using an external Microsoft Active Directory or LDAP directory, you can form AMC groups by building your own directory query or, if you’re familiar with LDAP syntax, writing your own directory query. Whenever this dynamic group is referenced in an access control rule, the external directory is queried and the results are cached for 30 minutes.

Dynamic groups are useful if you want to create a policy that applies to a group that is not already defined in the external directory. For example, you might want to create a group called Operations (Seattle). Although the external directory might already have a group called Operations, you want to narrow it down to members who are based in Seattle.

To add a dynamic group using an external directory:
* 
IMPORTANT: When conducting a multi-valued query against an LDAP or AD directory, you must specify the full DN of the group being queried.
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
On the Mapped Accounts tab, click New and then select Dynamic group. A separate Add/Edit Dynamic Group page opens.

Users who match the expression that you build or write in this page are dynamically included in this group. If a user is added later and matches this expression, he or she is automatically included in this group.

3
Select the realm to which this new group belongs from the Realm drop-down menu. Only realms that have been configured with an Active Directory or LDAP server (single or chained authentication) are available.
4
(Optional) Type a Name for this dynamic group.
5
Optionally, type a Description that can be used when creating access rules that apply to only certain groups.
6
Choose between Simple and LDAP syntax. Use the one you are most familiar with so that you can edit the query (if needed) in the Expression field.
7
Use these fields in the Expression area to build your query (see Advanced Search Methods for help with LDAP query syntax):
 

Fields usage

Setting

Description

Expression

The query you create using the following fields is displayed here so that you can edit it (if necessary).

Attribute

An initial query is sent to the external directory server to get a list of defined attributes. (If this list does not look correct, check the name of the realm you selected in the Realm list.)

Filter operators

A menu of commonly used LDAP search operators (=, !=, >=, and <=) to filter the values returned by the LDAP or Active Directory server.

Value

A user-entered value that can contain wild cards (*). Assuming an Attribute of ZipCode, for example, you could type a Value of 98* to query for all employees living in Washington state.

Operator

Common logical operators (AND, OR).

Add to Expression

Adds the current attribute, value, and operator to the Expression text area. You can cycle back through (as many times as needed), defining an additional Attribute, Value, and Operator to further refine your query. Click Add to Expression after each addition.

Base

(Optional) Base of the AD/LDAP authentication server. It specifies the point in the LDAP directory from where to start the query. For example, to search users in the Microsoft Active Directory:

CN=users, DC=engineering, DC=sonicwall, DC=com

If a base is not entered, the query is performed at the search based of the authentication server.

Scope

Depth of the query. Selecting All levels below base (default) to retrieve information from all levels below the base. Select One level below base to retrieve information from the search base itself. No containers below the search base are searched.

You can also type a query directly in the Expression field.

8
Test the expression you’ve created. The results are displayed in the Members section and should tell you whether you need to broaden or refine your search. To limit the number of members displayed, check the Display checkbox and typing the maximum number of items in the Display field.

Testing an expression sends the LDAP search query displayed in the Expression area to the LDAP or AD server and displays the results (a list of users) in the right-hand pane. If the results are not what you expect, modify the query by either building the expression or editing the query directly in the Expression field and then test again.

* 
TIP: A new group should not be saved until the expression has been tested.
9
Use the Show attributes as drop-down menu in the lower right corner of the page to display details in the Details sections about the member selected in the Members section. Selecting Summary shows a summary of the member, and selecting All attributes shows all attributes of the member.
* 
NOTE: Most chained authentication deployments involve an LDAP or AD server paired with another authentication server (like RADIUS). In the unlikely event that you are using chained authentication with a combination of LDAP and AD servers, keep the following in mind:
If you are searching for users, only search results from the first LDAP or AD authentication server in the chain are displayed. The policy server, however, will return results from both servers in the chain.
The same is true when searching for groups (except if an affinity server is configured for the realm: it will be searched instead of the authentication servers).

For example, if you have a group called Accounting on both LDAP or AD servers in your chained authentication, any access control rules you create that are restricted to the Accounting group will apply to group members on both servers, even though the Search Directory page shows results from just the first server in the chain.

Editing Users or Groups

If a user or group name or distinguished name changes in your external directory, you must modify the account on the appliance. You can also change local user accounts or group names on the appliance. For information about editing local accounts, see Managing Local User Accounts.

To edit a user or group
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Mapped Accounts tab, and then click the name of the group or user that you want to edit. The Add/Edit Mapped Account page appears.
3
Make any edits as needed. If the user or group is in an Active Directory or LDAP realm, you can click Browse and then search for the user.
4
Click Save.

Deleting Users or Groups

* 
NOTE: You cannot delete a user or group if it is referenced by another object. For example, if you try to delete a user or group that is referenced in an access control rule, AMC displays an error message. You must first remove all references to the user or group before you can delete it. See Deleting Referenced Objects for more details.

When you delete a user or group that is mapped to an external user directory, its mapping is removed from the system. Deleting a user or group mapping does not remove the user or group from the external user directory. For information about deleting local users or group, see Managing Local User Accounts.

To delete a user or group:
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Mapped Accounts tab.
3
Select the checkbox to the left of any groups or users that you want to delete.
4
Click Delete.

Managing Local User Accounts

Create local user accounts on the appliance in one of these ways:

Manually create local user accounts in AMC and store them in a local user authentication repository.
Import local user accounts from a comma-separated (CSV) text file and store them in a local user authentication repository. See Importing New Local Users and Groups.

Regardless of the method you use, local users are stored on the appliance, unlike all other users who are stored in external authentication repositories and referenced by AMC. AMC lets you create, modify, and delete local accounts for individual users on the appliance, and also supports local accounts for groups of users.

Topics:  

Adding Local Users

Before you can add local users, you must first create a local user authentication repository on the appliance, as described in Configuring Local User Storage. You do not need to configure a local authentication realm before adding local users.

After you’ve created a local user authentication repository, you can add local users to the appliance.

To add local users to the appliance:
1
On the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Local Accounts tab.
3
Click New and then select User. The Add Local User page appears.

4
In the Username field, type the name of the local user you want to add to the local user authentication repository. The user name can be any length between one and 255 characters.
5
In the Description field, type a descriptive comment about the local user.
6
To enable the user to log in, select the User is enabled checkbox.
7
In the Password field, type a password for the local user, and type it again in the Confirm Password field. The password must conform to the password policy configured for the local authentication server. For information, see Configuring Local User Storage.
8
To require the user to change password at initial login, select the User must change password at next login checkbox.
9
In the User Group section, select a local group for the user from the Add this user to group drop-down menu. Select:
None if you do not want to add the user to a local group. T, select
(New) to create a new group for this user; and then enter the group name in the New group name field.
10
Expand the Advanced section to add an email address or device identifier for the user.
11
In the Email Address field, configure an email address for the user. This address is used for sending one-time passwords to the user, and overrides the default username@domain email address. This e-mail address is assigned to the mail attribute for the user.
12
In the Device identifier(s) field, enter one or more comma-delimited device identifiers for computers or other devices associated with this user. This value is used by the equipment identifier end-point-control feature to enforce user-device affinity. These values are assigned to the deviceId attribute.
13
Click:
Save to create the local user account and save it to the local user authentication repository on the appliance.
Save and Add Another to save it and then configure another local user.

Editing Local Users

To change a local user’s settings:
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Local Accounts tab.
3
Click the name of the user you want to edit. The Add/Edit Local User page appears.
4
Make any edits to the user’s settings, and then click Save.

Deleting Local Users

* 
IMPORTANT: You cannot delete a local user if he or she is referenced by another object. For example, if you try to delete a local user referenced in an access control rule, AMC displays an error message. Click the link in the error message to see a list of all references to this user. See Deleting Referenced Objects for more details.
To delete a local user:
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Local Accounts tab.
3
Select the checkbox for the user you want to delete.
4
Click Delete.

Adding Local Groups

Before you can add local groups, you must first create a local user authentication repository on the appliance, as described in Configuring Local User Storage. You do not need to configure a local authentication realm before adding local groups.

After you’ve created a local user authentication repository, you can add local groups to the appliance. Either add local groups manually or import groups, as explained in Importing and Exporting Local Accounts.

To add local groups to the appliance:
1
On the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Local Accounts tab.
3
Click New and then select Group. The Add Local User Group page appears.

4
In the Name field, type the name of the local group you want to add to the local user authentication repository.
5
In the Description field, type a descriptive comment about the local group.
6
To add a user to the group, click the Add button. The Add User to Group page opens.

7
Select the checkbox beside each user you want to add to the group.
8
Click Add. Only users who are not already in the selected group are displayed.
9
To create a new user, click the New button to display the Add User page. See Adding Local Users for a description of the fields.
10
Click:
Save to create the local user group and save it to the local user authentication repository on the appliance.
Save and Add Another to save it and then configure another local group.

Editing Local Groups

To change a local group’s settings:
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Local Accounts tab.
3
Click the name of the group you want to edit. The Add/Edit Local Group page appears.
4
Make any edits to the group’s settings.
5
Click Save.

Deleting Local Groups

* 
IMPORTANT: You cannot delete a local group if it is referenced by another object. For example, if you try to delete a local group referenced in an access control rule, AMC displays an error message. Click the link in the error message to see a list of all references to this group. See Deleting Referenced Objects for more details.
To delete a local group:
1
From the main navigation menu, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Local Accounts tab.
3
Select the checkbox for the group you want to delete, and then click Delete.

Importing and Exporting Local Accounts

SMA appliances use CSV files to import and export user and group information. User and group information can be imported for new and existing user accounts as long as the CSV file conforms to the guidelines shown in Creating the CSV File. Detailed import information is provided in Importing New Local Users and Groups and Importing Data for Existing Local Users.

Export creates a CSV file named LocalUsers.csv that contains all local user accounts in the local user authentication repository. Follow the guidelines in Exporting Local User Accounts to create the export file.

Topics:  

Importing New Local Users and Groups

To easily add or edit local users and groups, import local user information from a comma-separated (CSV) text file into the appliance configuration. This time-saving feature is especially useful to new customers who must add numerous local users to the appliance. Importing users is also very useful when you need to update one or more properties for existing users. For example, you can quickly add a new group to several users when a new group is created. See Importing Data for Existing Local Users for additional information.

Before you can import local users and groups, you must first create a local user authentication repository on the appliance, as described in Configuring Local User Storage. Once you’ve created a local user authentication repository, you can import local users and groups to the appliance.

* 
NOTE: A local authentication realm does not need to be created before importing local users and groups.
To import local users and groups to the appliance:
1
Ensure the CSV file to be imported resides on the local computer and adheres to the guidelines in Creating the CSV File.
* 
IMPORTANT: No data is imported if AMC encounters any errors in the CSV file.
2
On the main navigation menu under Security Administration, select Users & Groups.
3
Click the Local Accounts tab.

Click the Import button, which displays the Import Local Users page you use to import local users from a CSV file into the local user authentication repository.

You must have modify access to the Local Accounts page and a local user authentication repository must be available.

4
In the Choose a file to import field, click Browse to locate the file you want to import. Before importing a file, ensure that it meets the requirements shown in Creating the CSV File.
5
Select how a user account that is in both the local user authentication repository and the imported file should be handled:
 

Select

To

Update the User

Update the duplicate user data in the local user authentication repository to match the user record in the imported CSV file

Do not update the user

Ignore the duplicate user record in the CSV file and leave the user data in the local user authentication repository unchanged

Regardless of this setting, the passwords of existing users are never updated. However, passwords for new users are imported.

6
In the Default new user password field, type the password to be used by all new imported local users who do not have a password defined in the CSV file. The password must conform to the password policy configured for the local authentication server. New users will use this default password to login the first time.
7
Retype the default password in the Confirm password field.
8
Click the Import button to add local user accounts to the local user authentication repository.
Creating the CSV File

The CSV file used to import user accounts into the appliance must be generated with the guidelines shown in CSV file field order, and fields must be in the order shown.

 

CSV file field order

Field

Required or Optional

Guidelines

Description

Username

Required

1-255 characters (case-sensitive)

Name the user enters to login

Description

Optional

Any number and type of characters allowed

Additional information about the user

Password

Optional

Must conform to the password policy configured for the local authentication server (used only when importing new users)

Password the user enters to login

Enabled

Required

Must contain either True or False

NOTE: Case-sensitive

Whether the user is allowed to login

E-mail

Optional

Local user name and domain name separated by an @ (up to 254 characters)

Valid e-mail address used to send one-time passwords to the user

Devices

Optional

Comma-separated list

Device IDs associated with the user

Groups

Optional

Comma-separated list (up to 255 characters)

NOTE: A group is created if AMC tries to import an undefined group.

Comma-separated list of groups to which the user belongs

This example shows the file format required to import users into AMC:

:

The following guidelines are also required, as shown in the above example:

The first row of the file is ignored, because the CSV format uses the first row as column headers.
String values are typically quoted using double quotes (“).
String values containing commas must be quoted.
String values containing quotes must escape the quote by using another double quote character, for example, “The group name is “”Team1””.”

If AMC encounters any errors in the CSV file, no data is imported and an error message is displayed. Error messages are shown in Import and Export Error Messages.

Downloading a CSV Template
To download a template you can use to create the CSV file containing user data:
1
On the main navigation menu under Security Administration, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Local Accounts tab.
3
Click the Import button.
4
On the Import Local Users page, click the Click here link

5
When the Windows File Download dialog appears, click the Save button.
6
When the Windows Save As dialog appears, either:
Click the Save button to accept the defaults. By default, the file is named LocalUsersTemplate.csv and located in your Downloads folder.
Select another file name and location for the CSV file.
7
After downloading the file, use it as a guide to add user data that you want to import into the local user authentication repository.

Importing Data for Existing Local Users

As an alternative to manually editing user accounts, import users when you need to update one or more properties for several user accounts already in the local user authentication repository. For example, you can quickly add several users to a group when a new group is created. Simply export user accounts to a CSV file, change the desired properties, and then import the revised user accounts back into the local user authentication repository.

To import data for existing local users, follow the instructions in Importing New Local Users and Groups with the following exceptions:

When selecting whether data should be updated for the user, be sure to select Update the User.

Passwords are imported for new users only. Regardless of this setting, the passwords of existing users are never updated.

Use the same CSV file format used to import new users. See Creating the CSV File. However, only the following properties are imported.
Description
E-mail Address
Device IDs
Groups
Properties can be added but not removed when importing users.

Importing New Groups

When importing data for new or existing local users, group memberships also are imported (if available in the imported CSV file). AMC does not explicitly import local groups. However, if a user is a member of a group that has not been configured in AMC, a new local group is created and the user is added as a member of the group.

* 
CAUTION: Make sure all group names in the CSV file are correct. Otherwise, unwanted groups will be created.

Exporting Local User Accounts

The AMC provides the ability to create a CSV-formatted text file by exporting local user accounts and related group information currently defined in the local user authentication repository. This CSV file can then be used to import user data into any database.

To export local user accounts:
1
On the main navigation menu under Security Administration, select Users & Groups.
2
Click the Local Accounts tab.

3
Click the Export button, which displays the Windows File Download dialog.
4
Click the Save button.
5
When the Windows Save As dialog appears, either:
Click the Save button to accept the defaults. By default, the file is named LocalUsers.csv and located in your Downloads folder.
Select another file name and location for the CSV file.

Import and Export Error Messages

The following error messages may occur when importing or exporting a CSV file. If an error is encountered during import, no data is imported. Therefore, you must correct the error before the file can be imported.

 

Duplicate user names

If the same user name (case-insensitive) appears in more than one record in the CSV file, an error message identifies the user name and line on which the duplicate user name appears.

Wrong number of data columns

If a record contains an invalid number of columns, an error message indicates that the data is invalid and identifies the line number of the record.

Invalid email address

If a record contains an e-mail address that is not a valid address (for example “useratdomain.com”), an error message identifies the user name, invalid address, and line number where the invalid address occurs.

Invalid default password

If the default password does not meet the password criteria configured on the local authentication server, an error message identifies the criteria that is not met. For example, if the password does not contain either an uppercase letter or a symbol but is required to have at least one or both, the error message indicates that both are missing.

Invalid “enabled” value

If the value for the Enabled column is not “true” or “false”, an error message identifies the problem and line number of the record.

Invalid user name

If a user name is invalid (for example, more than 255 characters), an error message identifies the problem and line number of the record.

Invalid group name

If a group name is invalid (for example, more than 255 characters), an error message identifies the problem and line number of the record.

Missing user name

If an entry is missing a user name, an error message identifies the problem and line number of the record.

Missing password (and no default provided for new users)

If an entry for a new user is missing a password and no default password is provided, an error message identifies the problem and line number of the record.

Invalid user password

If an entry for a new user contains a password that does not meet the password policy configured on the local authentication server, an error message identifies that the password does not meet the policy and the line number of the problem.

Integrating an SMA Appliance with a SonicWall Firewall

Secure Mobile Access (SMA) 1000 series appliances running firmware version 12.0.1 and higher can be integrated to work with SonicWall TZ, NSA, and SuperMassive series firewalls running firmware version SonicOS 5.9.X and higher.

These devices can be integrated to share session information using the SonicOS Single Sign-On (SSO) feature. The SonicWall TZ, NSA, or SuperMassive series firewall can be configured to act as a RADIUS accounting server and to receive RADIUS accounting records from a Secure Mobile Access (SMA) 1000 series appliance.

Topics:  

Configuring a Firewall to Receive RADIUS Accounting Records from an SMA Appliance

To configure a firewall to receive RADIUS accounting records from an SMA Appliance:
1
On the firewall, go to the Users > Settings page.

2
Click Configure SSO. The SonicWall SSO Authentication Configuration page appears.

3
Select the RADIUS Accounting tab.

4
Select the Accounting Clients tab.
5
Click Add. The Settings tab appears.

6
In the Client host name or IP address field, enter the IP address or host name of the internal interface on the SMA appliance (RADIUS client) that is connected to the firewall (RADIUS server).
7
Enter the Shared Secret.
 
* 
NOTE: The Shared Secret is a text string of your choice that serves as the password between the RADIUS client and the RADIUS server. This instance of the Shared Secret is for the firewall, which is acting as the RADIUS server. You will enter this same Shared Secret when you configure the SMA appliance.
8
Enter the Shared Secret again in the Confirm Secret field.
9
Click Apply.
10
Click OK.

Configuring an SMA Appliance to Send RADIUS Accounting Records to a Firewall

To configure an SMA appliance to send RADIUS accounting records to a firewall:
1
On the SMA appliance, go to the System Configuration > Authentication Servers page.

2
Under Other servers, click the Edit icon for RADIUS Accounting. The RADIUS Accounting dialog appears.

3
Select the Enable RADIUS Accounting checkbox.
4
In the Primary RADIUS server field, enter the IP address of the firewall that you configured in Integrating an SMA Appliance with a SonicWall Firewall.
a
In the Accounting port field, enter the port number you want to use. If the port field is left blank, the default port (1813) is used. Port 1646 is also commonly used for RADIUS accounting.
5
In the Secondary RADIUS server field, enter the IP address of the firewall that you configured in Integrating an SMA Appliance with a SonicWall Firewall.
a
In the Accounting port field, enter the port number you want to use. If the port field is left blank, the default port (1813) is used. Port 1646 is also commonly used for RADIUS accounting.
6
In the Shared secret field, enter the same Shared Secret you configured on the firewall in Integrating an SMA Appliance with a SonicWall Firewall.
7
Click Save.

Viewing SMA Users on the Firewall

When your SonicWall firewall is connected to an SMA appliance via a VPN client, you can view the SMA users on the firewall.

To view SMA users on the firewall:
8
On the firewall, go to the Users > Status page.

9
Select the checkbox for Include inactive users. SMA users should appear in the list.

As the SMA users are logged into a device that is external to the firewall, the firewall treats those user sessions as inactive. To see the SMA users displayed on this page, you must select the checkbox for Include inactive users. After the firewall is configured to receive RADIUS accounting information from the SMA appliance, users are automatically added to this list as soon as they are successfully authenticated by the SMA appliance. They are removed automatically when their SMA session ends.

 

Working with Appliance Management Console

Logging In to AMC

This section introduces the Appliance Management Console (AMC), a Web-based interface for managing the appliance.

Before logging in to AMC, you need the host name or IP address you typed for the internal interface during the initial setup with Setup Tool.

To log in to AMC:
1
Start your Web browser and type the URL https://<ipaddress>:8443/console, where <ipaddress> matches the address you specified for the internal interface when you ran Setup Tool or Setup Wizard.

2
Enter admin in the Username text field.
3
Enter the root password you created using Setup Tool in the Password text field.
4
Select the Management Console in the Log in using drop-down menu.
5
Click Login. The AMC home page appears.

6
Review the system statistics and use the functions on the right to configure and maintain your system.
7
Click Help at the top for details about configuring your appliance.

For information on changing the AMC password, see Editing Administrator Accounts.

* 
NOTE: Avoid multiple administrators making changes to AMC simultaneously. For more information, see Avoiding Configuration File Conflicts with Multiple Administrators.

Logging Out

It is important to preserve the security of your AMC administrator account. When you’re finished working in AMC, click Log out in the upper-right portion of the screen. If you terminate a session by simply closing your Web browser, your session remains active until it times out (after 15 minutes of inactivity). There is an exception to this rule that you should be aware of; see Appliance Sessions for details.

AMC Basics

This section describes the basics of working with AMC. All configuration data is encrypted using SSL as it’s transferred between AMC and your browser, ensuring that it remains secure. To increase security, AMC should be used within a trusted network (on an internal network that is behind a firewall). See Working with Certificates FAQs for more details.

A Quick Tour of the AMC Interface

The AMC interface will be familiar to anyone who has worked with similar Web-based security management applications. Here are some basic notes about working with AMC.

Topics:  

Summary Pages

Several top-level pages in AMC are summary pages that provide quick access to subordinate configuration pages and display summaries of key configuration settings and other status information. These summary pages are:

Agent Configuration
General Settings
Network Settings
SSL Settings
Authentication Servers
Services

For example, the Agent Configuration page provides links to pages for configuring End Point Control, Secure Mobile Access access, and other agents. You can see right away on this summary page whether a specific agent is enabled or disabled.

Tables and Tabs

Many AMC pages use a tabular layout to present the objects you’ll be managing. The tables include scroll bars, which make it easier for you to keep the main elements on the page (including the navigation bar, header, and footer) in view when working with long lists. You can also sort the data displayed in some tables by clicking the underlined column headings.

In some cases, you’ll use tabs to switch between modes. For example, you’ll use tabs to switch between managing resources, groups of resources, and variables used in defining resources.

Filters

On pages in AMC that contain a list of items that can grow to many pages in a large configuration, filtering is available to make it easier for you to find what you are looking for. Filters are available on the AMC pages shown in Pages containing filters:

 

Pages containing filters

Security Administration

User Access

 

Access Control

 

WorkPlace

 

Resources

 

WorkPlace > Shortcut Groups

 

Resources > Resource Groups

Monitoring

 

Users & Groups

 

User Sessions

 

Users & Groups > Local Accounts

 

Logging

The exact filters vary slightly with each page, but the following functionality is consistent across all pages:

There is a reset link that resets the filter fields to their default values.
There is a red active indicator that indicates that the page was loaded using filters, meaning that the list may not be displaying all the configured items.
There is a Refresh button that reloads the page with the specified filters applied.
The filters are stored so that the next time you loads the page, it uses the same filters that were last applied. The filters are stored across sessions, so even if you log out and log back in, the same filters will be used.
There is a footer at the bottom of the list that shows the number of items displayed and the total number of items in the list. If filtering is active, there is a (filtered) indicator and a Show all link that resets the filters to the defaults and refresh the page to display all items in the list.

In general, the available filters map to the displayed columns in the list. In some cases, such as Resource Groups or Shortcut Groups, you can filter the list based on the members of the group, which is not a column in the list. As another example, on the Resources page you could filter the list based on something in the Value attribute, which is not a column, but is visible when an item in the list is expanded.

One way that you could use this feature for custom filtering is to create your own “tags” by adding a custom string to the Description field of related items. For example, if a certain set of resources are all used by one department or for one customer, you could add a keyword or tag to the description of those resources, and then use the filtering capability to quickly display only the resources that contain the special keyword or tag.

Page Links

Links to other pages are shown in blue and are underlined. Clicking on the link displays the page.

Editing an Object

In most of the tables used to display lists of objects, the name field (or in the case of the Access Control page, the rule number) is hyperlinked. To edit an object, click its hyperlink.

Changing the Page View

Some of the longer, more complex pages in AMC hide the edit controls used to configure advanced features. This makes it easier for you to focus on the most important configuration options. To view hidden options, click the down arrow (click the up arrow to hide them again):

Expanded View of List Details

AMC pages that display lists of objects, such as the Access Control page, let you view details about an object by clicking the plus sign (+) in the second column. To return to the one-line view, click the minus sign (-).

Required Fields and Errors

Required fields are indicated in AMC with an asterisk. If you omit a value for a required field and click Save, a red message appears beneath the field indicating that it is required. A red message is also used to indicate an error (for example, if you type an invalid value).

Assigning Names and Descriptions

Most of your time in AMC will be spent managing three types of objects:

Access control rules
Resources
Users and groups

When you create these objects, AMC requires that you type a name. AMC also has a space for you to type an optional description.

Although not required, meaningful descriptions can help you remember critical details about the objects you’re managing, such as the purpose of an access rule or what resources are in a subnet range. A good description is especially helpful when managing a group of objects; when you return to AMC later to manage a large group of network resources, for example, you’ll be glad to have a description reminding you of what’s in the group.

Saving Changes on a Page

On some AMC pages you can Save or Cancel the changes you make. If you click Cancel, or use the Back button in your browser, your changes are not saved.

AMC Status Area

A status area just beneath the SonicWall Secure Mobile Access banner displays important information:

Each message has an indicator for the importance of the information; for example, a yellow warning sign. Each of these messages is a link that displays either:

A dialog with further information: for example, clicking on Pending changes displays:

The relevant page; for example, clicking on Application learning mode displays End Point Control > Application Learning:

Version Number and Product Serial Number

The version of the current system software and the product serial number are displayed at the bottom of the left-hand navigation bar on every page in AMC.

In addition to the version number, the System Status and Maintenance pages display a list of any hot fixes that have been applied. The version number and hot fix information is useful for planning system updates, and you need to have it when contacting SonicWall Technical Support.

Adding, Editing, Copying, and Deleting Objects in AMC

AMC features a standardized user interface for managing most objects, such as resources, access control rules, users, communities, End Point Control zones and device profiles, and other items used to organize and operate your VPN.

Following are the basic procedures for adding, editing, copying, and deleting objects in AMC, although there may be some minor variations depending on the object and AMC page you’re working on. The examples provided here use the End Point Control Zones page.

To add a new object in AMC:
1
Click New on the page listing the type of object you want to create.
2
Select the option you want to create. This example uses Device zone....

The Zone Definition - Device Zone page appears.

3
Complete the relevant information for the object.
4
Click Save at the bottom of the screen.
To edit an object in AMC:
1
On the page that lists the object you want to edit, click the link for the name (or in some cases, the number) of the object you want to modify. For a quick description of the object, an expand (+) button is available on most lists.
2
Make any changes to the information for the object.
3
Click Save.
To copy an object in AMC:
1
On the page that lists the object you want to copy, select the checkbox to the left of the object.
2
Click Copy.

3
Make any changes to the information about the source object, and be certain to assign the object a new name.
4
Click Save.
To delete an object in AMC:
* 
NOTE: You cannot delete an object that is still associated with other objects. For information, see Deleting Referenced Objects.
On the page that lists the object you want to delete, select the checkbox to the left of the object.
Click Delete.

Getting Help

Every AMC page includes a Help button (in the upper right portion of the page) that displays context-sensitive online help in a new browser window:

The Help window includes a navigation pane on the left and help content on the right. Click an item in the navigation pane to display help content for that item.

Administrator Accounts

This section describes how to:

Manage AMC administrator accounts,
Avoid problems if more than one administrator is managing the appliance.
Topics:  

Managing Administrator Accounts and Roles

AMC enables you to create multiple administrator accounts, each with a separate username and password. You can then assign roles to administrators, specifying which features in AMC they can use, and their levels of access.

By default, AMC is configured with a primary administrator role that has full access to all areas of AMC. Only the primary administrator can add, edit, or delete other administrator accounts.

Topics:  

Adding Administrator Accounts

You can create additional administrator accounts if more than one person is responsible for managing policy and you want each person to have individual login credentials. Only the “primary” administrator—whose default name of admin cannot be changed—can create, modify, and delete secondary administrator accounts.

By default, the preconfigured roles include the ability to view all forms of session data and to terminate sessions. See Viewing User Sessions and Ending User Sessions for more information.

To add an administrator account:
1
From the main navigation menu, click General Settings.

2
In the Administrator accounts area, click Edit. The Manage Administrator Accounts page appears.

3
Click New > Administrator.... The Add/Edit Administrator page appears.

4
In the User drop-down menu, select a user.
5
Select an Administrator Role from the Role drop-down menu. AMC provides preconfigured roles, which are defined on the Add/Edit Administrator Role page; see Preconfigured role descriptions. You can modify these preconfigured roles, or create new roles (see Defining Administrator Roles):
* 
NOTE: By default, the preconfigured roles include the ability to view all forms of session data and to terminate sessions. See Viewing User Sessions and Ending User Sessions for more information.
 

Preconfigured role descriptions

Preconfigured role

Description

Super Admin

Has read/write access to all pages in AMC

Security Admin

Has read/write access to security administration and monitoring pages in AMC, and view access to system settings

System Admin

Has read/write access to system and monitoring pages, and view access to security pages

6
Click Save.
7
Click Pending Changes at the top of the page. The Apply Pending Changes dialog displays.

8
Click Apply Changes.

Editing Administrator Accounts

* 
NOTE: For information on deleting administrator accounts, see Adding, Editing, Copying, and Deleting Objects in AMC

To help keep your AMC password secure, you should change it from time to time. Each administrator can edit his or her own account to change the password or update the description. The primary AMC administrator (whose username is admin) can edit the account settings for any other administrator.

Your password must contain between eight and 20 characters, and is case-sensitive. A strong password—with a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, and numbers—is recommended. You should also avoid using words found in a dictionary.

After you change your password, record it somewhere and keep it secure. If you change a secondary administrator’s password, be sure to share the password with the appropriate administrator.

To edit an administrator account:
1
From the main navigation menu, click General Settings.

2
On the General Settings page, in the Administrators area, click Edit.

3
In the Name column on the Manage Administrator Accounts page, click the name of the administrator you want to edit .
* 
IMPORTANT: If the password for the primary administrator (whose username is admin) is changed, the password for logging in to the appliance directly (as root) is also changed.
* 
NOTE: The username and role of the primary or legacy local administrator cannot be changed.
4
On the Add/Edit Administrator page, change the textual description, login password, or role.

Adding/Editing Legacy Local Administrator Accounts

You can create or modify legacy local administrator accounts, which are supported for backwards compatibility only. The recommended way to configure local administrators is to create users in a local authentication server and map them to administrative roles. In previous versions, administrators could only be defined locally on the appliance, rather than defined in an authentication server.

For information on deleting administrator accounts, see Adding, Editing, Copying, and Deleting Objects in AMC.

To add or edit a legacy local administrator account:
1
From the main navigation menu, click General Settings.
2
If you are adding a legacy local administrator, click Authentication.

a
In the Legacy local administrators area, select the Allow legacy local administrators checkbox.
b
Click Save.
3
In the Administrator area, click Edit. The Manage Administrator Accounts page appears.
4
To:
Add a legacy local administrator account, click New > Legacy Local Administrator....
Edit an existing legacy local administrator account, click the name of the administrator you want to edit.

The Add/Edit Administrator page appears.

5
In the Verify administrator password field, enter the admin’s password.
6
In the Username field, enter the legacy local administrator’s username.
7
In the Description field, enter a descriptive comment about the legacy local administrator account.
8
In the Password field, enter the legacy local administrator’s password.
9
In the Confirm password field, type in the legacy local administrator’s password again.
10
In the Role drop-down menu, select an Administrator Role. AMC provides preconfigured roles, which are defined on the Add/Edit Administrator Role page; see Preconfigured role descriptions. You can modify these preconfigured roles, or create new roles (see Defining Administrator Roles).
11
Click Save.
12
Click Pending Changes at the top of the page.
13
Click Apply Changes.

Defining Administrator Roles

Role-based administration enables the primary administrator to grant limited administrative control to secondary AMC administrators.

For defining administrator roles, the features in AMC are grouped into four categories. For each category, you must specify the permissions you want to grant a role. The four categories of administrator permissions in AMC are described in Administrator permissions. The permission level for each category can be set as shown in Permission levels.

 

Administrator permissions

Category

Administrator permissions

Security administration

Controls administrator access to pages for access control rules, resources, users and groups, WorkPlace, OnDemand, and End Point Control.

System configuration

Controls administrator access to pages for network settings, general appliance settings, SSL settings, access and network services, authentication servers, and realms.

System maintenance

Controls administrator permission to shut down or restart the appliance, update or roll back the system software, and import or export configuration data.

System monitoring

View access permits the administrator to view system logs and graphs, view active users, and run troubleshooting tools (such as starting, stopping, downloading, and deleting network traces). Modify provides additional permissions to terminate user sessions and modify log settings.

 

Permission levels

Permission level

Description

Modify

Permits read/write access within a category.

View

Provides read-only access within a category.

None

Disables access to the relevant AMC pages within a category. When you select None as the permission level for a category, AMC does not display either the pages within that category or the main navigation menu commands that lead to those pages.

To create an administrator role:
1
From the main navigation menu, click General Settings.

2
In the Administrators area, click Edit for the Administrator accounts. The Manage Administrator Roles page appears and lists the administrators and their roles.

3
Click the Roles tab.

4
Click New. The Add Administrator Role page appears.

5
In the Name field, type the name for the administrator role.
6
Optional. In the Description field, type a descriptive comment about the role.
7
In the Administrator permissions area, select one or more categories of permissions that will be granted to the role.
8
Click Save.

Adding Authentication Server

Secure Mobile Access allows you to choose the authentication server where your appliance administrators are defined. If you do not already have accounts defined in an external directory server, you can create a local authentication store and assign administrative roles to locally defined users and groups.

To add an authentication server:
1
From the main navigation menu, click Authentication Servers.

2
Click New.... The New Authentication Server page appears.

3
Enter your configuration settings,
4
Click Continue.... The Configure Authentication Server page appears.

5
Enter your configuration settings.
6
Click Save.
7
Navigate to General Settings.
8
In the Administrators area, click Edit for the Administrator accounts.
9
Click the Authentication tab.

10
In the Authentication server drop-down menu, select the authentication server you added in Step 2.
11
Keep all other options as default.
12
Click Save.
13
Click Pending Changes in the upper-right of the page.
14
Click Apply Changes.

Editing Administrator Roles

The primary AMC administrator can modify any secondary administrator role to change permission levels, and can also delete secondary roles. For more information, see Defining Administrator Roles.

Avoiding Configuration File Conflicts with Multiple Administrators

If more than one administrator is managing your appliance, you should avoid working in AMC at the same time. If multiple administrators make changes to the same object, AMC saves the most recent one. This can cause unintentional results, and potentially cause security problems if conflicting changes are made to access control rules.

If more than one administrator is logged into AMC, you are alerted by a link in the upper-right corner of AMC.

To see a list of the user names and IP addresses of all administrators who are logged into AMC, click this link: the Administrator Sessions page appears in a separate window. If an administrator has multiple instances of the Web browser logged into AMC, the administrator’s user name and IP address is listed more than once.

You should contact the other administrators and coordinate your activities to avoid configuration file conflicts.

To view the complete list of AMC administrators:
1
Click General Settings in the main AMC navigation menu.
2
Click Edit in the Administrator accounts area. The Manage Administrator Accounts page lists all administrators and shows which ones are currently logged in.

The management console audit log tracks any AMC configuration changes made by administrators. See Management Audit Log.

To end an AMC session you must click Log Out; if you terminate a session by closing your Web browser, the session appears in the list of active sessions until it times out (by default, in 15 minutes).

Managing Multiple Secure Mobile Access Appliances

SMA appliances should be managed by the Central Management Server (CMS).

* 
IMPORTANT: In SMA 12.0.1, GMS is not supported.

The Central Management Server (CMS) is a single administrative user interface from which you can manage all of your VPN appliances. CMS is a virtual machine that reduces the total cost of operation and simplifies the management of multiple VPN appliances for enterprise companies.

Central Management Server (CMS)

The VPN Administrator uses the Central Management Console (CMC) of the Central Management Server (CMS) to manage all the VPN appliances regardless of location in the world. There is close integration between the CMS and the managed appliances through a channel with native communications.

Central Management:

Provides enterprise customers a Dashboard to manage their distributed VPN infrastructure.
Reduces Total Cost of Operation (TCO) and operator errors associated with the management of multiple appliances.
Provides a Central Management Console (CMC) to configure, maintain and monitor appliances.
Simplifies license management with a centralized license that eliminates the need for separate appliance licenses.
Optimizes license usage, that is, licenses are dynamically allocated to appliances based on user load.
Facilitates centralized alerts via the console dashboard and SNMP traps.
Requires no dedicated appliance or hardware (The Central Management Server is a virtual machine.)

This dashboard view in the CMC gives you a summarized view of all managed appliances.

You can apply a common configuration to managed appliances from the CMC. Consolidated monitoring and reporting gives the Administrator an overview of all the appliances that are being managed.

Working with Configuration Data

This section explains how to save and activate configuration changes in AMC.

Topics:  

Saving Configuration Changes to Disk

When you’re finished making changes on a page in AMC and you click Save, your changes are saved to disk. If you click Cancel or use the Back button in your browser, your changes are not saved.

To save configuration changes to disk:
1
Make any changes on a page in AMC.
2
Click Save at the bottom of the page.

Configuration changes are saved to disk, but are not applied to the active configuration. The status area in AMC changes to indicate that you have pending changes that need to be applied to the appliance.

See Applying Configuration Changes for more information.

There are several options for managing configuration data—exporting it or saving it on the appliance, or restoring it, for example. See Managing Configuration Data for more information.

Applying Configuration Changes

As you make configuration changes to the appliance, they are saved to disk but are not immediately applied. These changes can either be activated (described in this section) or discarded (see Discarding Pending Configuration Changes for more information).

To activate your changes, you must apply them. You can apply most changes without interrupting service to users, and new connections will use the new configuration. Low-level configuration changes (for example, an IP address change) are a bit more disruptive: network services are automatically restarted and user connections are terminated, forcing users to reauthenticate. If possible, you should apply these sorts of configuration changes during off-peak hours (perhaps during a maintenance window) and notify your users beforehand.

If you need to restart services manually, see Stopping and Starting the Secure Mobile Access Services.

To apply your changes:
1
From the list of messages at the top of the page, click Pending changes. The Apply Pending Changes dialog displays.

2
Assess the impact of applying your changes by looking at the message on the Apply Changes page:
 

Warning message

Description

Applying changes will restart all services and terminate all user connections.
Applying changes will terminate existing TCP/IP user connections.
Applying changes will terminate existing HTTP user connections.

Applying any of these changes terminates existing user connections.

CAUTION: This requires users to reauthenticate, and may cause them to lose data.

Your changes will require AMC to restart, which will end your current administrative session. When the request is complete, open a new browser and log in to AMC again.

AMC will be unavailable after your current session ends. Close your browser and then log in to AMC again.

No authentication realms are enabled. This will prevent users from accessing any resources.

At least one authentication realm must be enabled for users to have access to resources. Otherwise, users cannot authenticate to the appliance.

3
Click Apply Changes to apply configuration changes.

When you apply configuration changes to WorkPlace, AMC performs a restart of the services. Users do not need to reauthenticate to WorkPlace, but if they provided Windows login credentials to access a network share, they are prompted to re-enter them when WorkPlace restarts.

Any connections that exist when you apply changes continue to use the old configuration until the connection terminates. Because Web connections are short-lived, most users accessing Web resources pick up configuration changes fairly quickly. On the other hand, client/server connections can survive for a long period of time.

If the new configuration fails to load, existing connections remain in effect but new connection attempts will fail. For details on what to do in this situation, see AMC Issues.

Discarding Pending Configuration Changes

Configuration changes you make in AMC are saved to disk, but they are not in effect until you apply them, as described in Applying Configuration Changes. You can use the AMC log file to find out what changes are pending, and go to the Apply changes page in AMC to discard them. Pending changes can only be discarded as a group: you cannot discard them selectively.

To discard pending changes:
1
(Optional) You can review the list of pending changes in the management console audit log file.
a
From the main navigation menu, click Logging, and then select Management Console audit log in the Log file list.
b
Any Info level item added since the last Applied configuration changes message appears is a change that can be discarded.

See Management Audit Log for more information.

2
From the main navigation menu, click Maintenance.
3
Click Apply changes.
4
On the Apply Changes page, click Discard. The time- and date-stamp of the configuration that will be restored when you discard pending changes is displayed.
5
Click OK to confirm that you want to discard changes.

Scheduling Pending Changes

To schedule changes:
1
Either click the Pending changes link in the upper-right corner of AMC, or click the Apply changes button on the Maintenance page to display the Apply Pending Changes dialog:
2
Expand the Advanced section by clicking the Down arrow icon next to the Advanced heading.

3
To schedule the pending changes to be applied at a later time, click the At radio button and select the desired time and date.

You also may apply the pending changes immediately by selecting the Now radio button or discard the pending changes by clicking Discard.

4
Click Apply Changes. Thereafter, clicking Pending Changes displays the scheduled actions.

A schedule can be changed or discarded at any time before the scheduled time using this dialog.

Deleting Referenced Objects

You cannot delete an object (such as a resource or a user) if it is still referenced by another object (the checkbox next to it in AMC cannot be selected). In this example, the resource Connect Tunnel cannot be deleted:

To delete an object that is in use by anther object—such as a Web shortcut, a WorkPlace layout, or an access rule—you must first out what objects are using it. To do this, expand the list item by clicking on the plus (+) sign next to it. In this example the resource is used by a WorkPlace shortcut named DFS; it can be deleted only after the WorkPlace shortcut is removed. (The resource is also part of a resource group named Default Resources, but it can be deleted if that is the only reference.)

Object types that cannot be deleted if referenced by other objects lists the object types that cannot be deleted if they are referenced by other objects.

 

Object types that cannot be deleted if referenced by other objects

This object type…

Can be referenced by this object type…

Resource

Access control rules, resource groups, WorkPlace Web shortcuts

Resource groups

Access control rules

Users

Access control rules

User groups

Access control rules

Realms

Users, user groups

Authentication servers

Realms

Communities

Realms

Web application profiles

Resources

End Point Control zones

Access control rules, communities

Device profiles

End Point Control zones